DONALD TRUMP, SHITHOLE AND AFRICA (1)

Political map of Africa showing respective countries

By
Babatunde Fagoyinbo

Introduction

Africa

When Trump’s remark “Why are we having all these people from shithole countries come here?” in his reaction to the discussion on protections for immigrants from Haiti, El Salvador, and African countries in the Oval Office, Thursday, January 11, 2018 penultimate to January 28 annual summit of the African Union, with the official theme of combating corruption got into the open, African leaders feigned outrage! We’ll wait to see how African countries rate in the next Transparency International at the net assessment.

Is the outrage morally right? Did Animasaun not tell us in 2013 that we like to show our allegiances to religion yet we have lost our humanity? (Animasaun, 2013). What happens when we lose our humanity? We treat ourselves like shit. And because Trump reminded us in 2018 of Animasaun’s observation in 2013 so that we can brace up and restore the human aspects of ourselves but we draw daggers! Animasaun further stated that the elite use the ethnic divisions for their own benefit yet we are too blind to see it.

Which of African leader has left his country on a better socio-economic standing than he met it other than Obasanjo’s military regime and Rawlings’ military regime and civilian presidency? He was named African Union Envoy to Somalia. It is claimed that Rawlings’ success in governance results from freedom from family or tribal pressures. Obasanjo could have succeeded better than Rawlings in his civilian era. He had no inclinations to ethnic sentiments but he submitted himself to manipulations by the National Assembly because they refused to pass the budget due to his unwillingness to package Ghana-must-go bags; a resolve he initially made in order to rid the nation of the garments of irresponsibility, greed, avarice and lasciviousness.

It is the feigned outrage that amazes me. A look at Museveni’s track records shows that he came into power in January 1986, has remained for three decades and won the country’s very heated poll in 2016 to extend his 32 years for a further five years before the next elections in 2021 (Eweniyi, 2017) vis-á-vis his remarks that “It is the Africans’ fault that they are weak” (news24.com, 2018) shows that LeBas (2016) was right in his conclusion that “Executives are able to act with impunity because there is no strong, organised opposition to challenge entrenched incumbents and push them toward a genuine political opening,”

Corruption

Corruption exists in governance everywhere but not in Africa! What exists in Africa is made up of irresponsibility, indiscipline, moral decadence, lawlessness, greed all combined together.

Gratification

Sometime around 1980, I read either in Time or Newsweek Magazine of prosecution of the Mayor of Melbourne for taking kick-back. The students of the University of Melbourne stormed the court; demanding that the case should be dismissed.

It was. Why? The students claimed that the bridge on which contract the mayor received kick-back had resulted into the deaths of many, including students, prior to the mayor’s tenure without the previous ones doing anything about it but that after the bridge was rehabilitated there were no more accidents there. The case was not heard in the court but we should assume that there was kick-back, there was performance and the lives and well-being of the people were positively affected. It is unlike the cases in Africa where the contract will be awarded and the funds released but no work is done or, at best, shoddy performance observed.

To me, corruption is any form of gratification negotiated or promised prior to the execution of a project for the purpose of easy passage, approval or certification. In Nigeria, prior to military rule gratification might cause a contractor to lose favour with the awarding agency. Gratification should be seen as saying “Thank You” after a job has been successfully completed and certified. This was even rare in the pre-military era in Nigeria. Civil Servants viewed gratification as a scheme to get them out of service using contractors. However, when a contractor felt that he’d been blessed in the project, they usually gave appreciation to the spouses of the project supervisors.

I have supervised many projects where contractors came to negotiate kick-backs but I’d always advised them that they could offer whatever they were capable of after the projects had been accredited as properly done and had ensured that their projects yielded dividends. Only one of them took me to lunch after the conclusion of his project. In Nigeria, particularly, most contractors see contracts as portions of their own pieces of the national cake and thus want to share some portions with the project administrators.

Misappropriation

This has to do with diversion of project funds to other means, most especially to personal accounts (Isenyo, 2017). Dasukigate is also a clear case of misappropriation, carried out without consideration for the dire consequences of his actions; the lives of young men and women who had been trained at great expenses for national security assignments, the loss of their service to the nation, the dashed hopes of members of their families.

Irresponsibility

Rifle-carrying terrorist herdsman

A government becomes irresponsible when it leaves undone what it is supposed to do. Let’s look at the rifle carrying herdsmen’s situation in a country that prohibits firearms without licenses, yet keeps mute over these so-called illiterates brandishing firearms in the open and attacking farmers on their farms so that cattle can feed on the farmers’ sweat. Is it Trump that called African nations shit pits or we ourselves who value cows more than human lives? (BBC Pidgin, 2018; PE, 2018)

Extension of terms by governance

Felter (2017) opined that (i) leaders are increasingly securing longer terms through “constitutional coups,” proposing amendments for approval by the legislature or judiciary, or in national referenda, that allow for additional terms in office, (ii) at least seventeen heads of state have tried to remain in power by tweaking their countries’ constitutions, (iii) countries lacking effective political opposition are vulnerable to constitutional coups, (iv) kleptocratic incumbents could lose their wealth if they were to lose power and potentially face prosecution and (v) very few African countries have any kind of pension or security scheme for former presidents or heads of state. This is necessitated because of fraudulent practices that siphon most of the state’s resources into private accounts.

Dr Yakubu  Gowon was ousted from Office as Head of State in 1975. He had no pension neither had access to his military salaries. He enroled and did a degree course and progressively acquired a PhD in political science as a student at the University of Warwick. There is no record that he has ever used those certificates to apply for employment.

Gen. Gowon is also involved in the Guinea Worm Eradication Programme as well as the HIV Programme with Global Fund of Geneva. Gowon founded his own organisation in 1992 called the Yakubu Gowon Centre. The organisation is said to work on issues in Nigeria such as good governance as well as infectious disease control including HIV/AIDS, guinea worm, and malaria.

In November 2004, Gowon won World Peace Prize Top Honor (awarded by World Peace Prize Awarding Council) for maintaining national stability, promoting economic growth, and organising a symbolic peace conference in the African region.

To-date, there has been no allegation of corruption, mismanagement or misappropriation of funds or embezzlement levied against him. He leads a simple life and moves about unguarded safe for official benefits as Army General.

Pacific-Ocean-wide disparities in salaries and emoluments

In Nigeria, there has been more than a decade struggle to raise the minimum wage to N30,000 for workers but in the same country the Socio-Economic Rights and Accountability Project (SERAP) alleged that 21 former governors collected N40 billion between 2015 and February 2018 as pensions despite the fact that many of them are rewarded by their parties as ministers or senators for jobs well done in election manipulations for their parties. Osuntokun cited the immoral case of Akwa Ibom State Governor’s retirement emoluments as the most extreme in generosity (fraudulent practice), a former governor is entitled to the following: N100 million for medical treatment annually; N1 million monthly medical allowance; Five bedroom bungalow each in Abuja and Uyo; 300% of the basic salary of the incumbent governor as pension; a new utility and three saloon cars every three years; foreign holidays for wife and children under 18 years; provision of personal aide, cook, security guards not exceeding N5 million per month (italics mine). This is a State that is oweing pensioners upwards of 10 years gratuity and pensions based on a monthly minimum wage of 17,500 (Anthony, 2018). At the national Assembly Shehu Sani a total package of 14.25 million naira per month per senator who is part of decision making on a minimum salary of N30,000.00 struggle over a period of over 10 years..

Stark Illiteracy Syndrome

In Europe and America literacy is the ability to read and write, Isn’t it? In Africa, many of us have university education with high grades but cannot apply the knowledge even within the discipline; not to mention its application in the broad spectrum of socio-economic development. The reason is that we are thought-warped.

Please tell me, how will our children be able to work together when parents are asking for class separation on the basis of religion in school? Muslim students, Christian students, the various traditional religions must have their seats separated because of religion! What type of population are we nurturing?

In 1981, I hired a bus to carry my luggage from Zaria to Akure. Between Abaji and Lokoja the bus had flat tyres. His spare was down so he had to carry the two tyres for repairs. I had nothing doing and I was alone but nearby was an anthill. I drew near it and broke a part of the mound. Almost immediately came a swarm of termites. There were two different two different shapes of them. They immediately set up a task force to rebuild the damaged part. There was no segregation. I know that after the repair each would go back to its assigned responsibilities.

I have also watched ants; the little black ants.  They don’t give up on any crumb of the a food item. If it’s too large they’ll set off cutting them into bits and pieces but if it can roll the piece, it will persist until others come to team up; and together, they always succeed. I know they have colonies but I’ve never seen small ants fighting. I don’t know what happens if one strays into a colony it doesn’t belong to.

I remember that in my university days one of my roommates was a Muslim and had a Christian friend squatting with him. The Muslim would carry his mat and rosary at prayer time while the Christian would read his Bible as appropriate and attend Church services. The irony is that these parents are going through hard times and struggling to pay school fees but are not bothered about good education for their children.

I believe Donald meant that leadership in Africa is the passage through which Europe and America (Asia has joined the league) dump all sorts of rubbish on us. The unfortunate thing is that we are not resisting. We cannot resist because our leaders know our weak points.

Royal Dutch Shell (Shell) has an internal policy requiring that an Integrated Assessment IA be conducted for all new major projects and for significant modifications to existing projects. The scope of individual IAs is meant to be ‘fit for purpose’ (Orenstein et al, 2010),

Within Shell, an IA is defined as an assessment that:

  1. Looks at environmental, social (including economic), and health impacts in an integrated manner;
  2. Integrates the impact assessment process with the business development and project development process;
  • Integrates the impact assessment as a cross-functional activity within several internal departments (e.g. health, safety and environment, reputation/issues management, social performance); and
  1. Looks at issues raised by projects that are also important beyond the project scope, with regard to both the host society and international interest.

But the government that was expected to ensure compliance is the same that encourages the violation of environmental protection by Shell (Ahmed, Undated). Cases of submission of loyal forces to Boko Haram insurgents also abound in the armed forces (bbc.com, 2014; Agbugah, 2015).

In agony, Prof Wole Soyinka bemoaned the governance of Nigeria “We haven’t had a situation where it is being alleged and proved that the money supposed to be spent on defending ourselves, nation and neighbours has been shared among individuals……..We have never had a case of critical emergency where children are being kidnapped under our noses, we are helpless and our soldiers have been sent to the front to defend our very existence and we are not backing them up. It has not happened before.” 

Why are Africans docile?

Africa can survive without shelter throughout the year

Africa is so blessed that if you eat pawpaw today, you will come to that spot a year later to harvest many without bothering yourself about caring for it. Notwithstanding that our soils are fragile; but, in most parts of Africa, you can survive without shelter throughout the year. This is evident in the lunatics that roam the streets daily. But the governments have tuned us to be dependent on governance including marriages in which government pays the bride price and provides furniture and household utensils for the newlyweds (bbc.com, 2012; Usman, 2012; AFP, 2016; Aminu, 2017), performance of religious obligations where government pays for the travel expenses and sustenance allowances and blatant denial of such infrastructures as electricity supply, water supply, transportation so that the entrepreneurial among our children will have no facilities to promote self-engagement and healthcare delivery while they use government funds to treat themselves in foreign hospitals only to come back home to die or are cloned (Opejobi, 2017).

Donald Trump- American President

Trump can be likened to a man who lives in a neighbourhood and observes the foundation of his neighbours’ building being eroded. He called them to attention and they accused him of poke-nosing into their affairs. Let’s look at the major points raised in the statement:

  1. “If after 50 years of independence you have not built the necessary infrastructure for your people, are you humans?
  2. “If you sit on gold, diamond, oil, manganese, uranium… and your people don’t have food, are you, humans?
  • “If to stay in power, you buy weapons from strangers to kill your own citizens, are you humans?
  1. “If your only social project is to stay in power for life, are you being human?
  2. “If you despise and shoot your own citizens like game, who will respect them?
  3. “If you take all resources meant for development of your country for personal property are you humans?
  • “If you leave your country healthcare unattended and treat yourself abroad are you humans?
  • “Until your leaders think less of themselves and more about your people. You are not human but animal.”

Next: DONALD TRUMP, SHITHOLE AND AFRICA (2)

REFERENCES

AFP (2016) Cash crunch hits mass weddings in northern Nigeria. Agence France-Presse July 20, 2016 · Accessed 15 Nov 2018. https://www.pri.org/stories/2016-07-20/cash-crunch-hits-mass-weddings-northern-nigeria

Agbugah, F (2015). DASUKIGATE: here is a breakdown of the alleged misappropriation of $2.1 bn by Dasuki and others. http://venturesafrica.com/dasukigate-here-is-a-breakdown-of-the-misappropriation-of-2-1-bn-meant-for-arms-deal-by-dasuki-and-others/

Ahmed, FH (Undated). Violation of Human Rights by Shell Oil Company: government failure. https://www.academia.edu/7327376/Violation_of_Human_Rights_by_Shell_Oil_Company_government_failure

Aluko, M (2015). Dasukigate’s Diagraph of Corruption. Monday, January 11, 2015 11.58PM  https://www.proshareng.com/news/Nigeria-Economy/Diagraph-of-Corruption-Diagraph-of-Corruption-/29763 

Aminu, M (2017). APC Chieftain to Sponsor Mass Wedding of 100 couples in Sokoto. THISDAYDecember 28, 2017. https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2017/12/28/apc-chieftain-to-sponsor-mass-wedding-of-100-couples-in-sokoto/

Animasaun, D (2013). Nigerian lawmakers are the highest paid in the world  Vanguard August 25, 2013 In Outside Looking In. https://www.vanguardngr.com/2013/08/nigerian-lawmakers-are-the-highest-paid-in-the-world/

Anthony, E (2018). Akwa Ibom and Payment of 10 Years Pension Arrears, Gratuities. The Nation on: November 2, 2018 In: Niger Delta. http://thenationonlineng.net/akwa-ibom-and-payment-of-10-years-pension-arrears-gratuities/

BBC Pidgin (2018). Fulani herdsmen: Nigeria suppose declare dem terrorists? BBC Pidgin 13 January 2018. https://www.bbc.com/pidgin/tori-42650096

bbc.com (2012). Nigerian Kano divorcees marry in mass ceremony. BBC World News 15 May 2012. Accessed 15 Nov 2018 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-18072118

bbc.com (2014). Nigeria soldiers ‘fire at army commander in Maiduguri’ BBC News 14 May 2014. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-27417778

Eweniyi, O (2017). Cameroon’s President Has Spent 42 Years In Power – And Here’s A List Of Africa’s Longest Serving Presidents. Accessed 15 Nov 2018. http://www.konbini.com/ng/lifestyle/cameroons-president-42-years-in-power-africas-longest-serving-presidents/

Felter, C (2017). Africa’s ‘Leaders for Life’ Syndrome. Accessed 15 Nov 2018.  https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/africas-leaders-life-syndrome

Isenyo, G (2017). Inside poor community where former NNPC GMD, Yakubu, hid over N3bn. Punch February 19, 2017. https://punchng.com/inside-poor-community-former-nnpc-gmd-yakubu-hid-n3bn/

Lebbas, A (2016). Term Limits and Beyond: Africa’s Democratic Hurdles. Current History May 2016. pp169-174

news24.com (2018). Ugandan President Backs ‘Frank’ Trump after ‘Shithole’ Remark. 2018-01-23 https://www.news24.com/Africa/News/ugandan-president-backs-frank-trump-after-shithole-remark-20180123

Opejobi, S (2017). Buhari was cloned in London, current Nigerian president is fake – Asari Dokubo. Published on October 3, 2017 Accessed 15 Nov 2018. http://dailypost.ng/2017/10/03/buhari-cloned-london-current-nigerian-president-fake-asari-dokubo-video/

Orenstein, M; T Fossgard-Moser; T Hindmarch; S Dowse; J Kuschminder; P McCloskey & RK Mugo (2010). Case study of an integrated assessment: Shell’s North Field Test in Alberta, Canada, Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal,

Osuntokun, J (2018). Obscene Pensions for State Governors.  The Nation February 15, 2018  http://thenationonlineng.net/obscene-pensions-state-governors/

PE (2018). Hypocrisy in tackling Fulani herdsmen terrorism. Punch Editorial  January 10, 2018. https://punchng.com/hypocrisy-in-tackling-fulani-herdsmen-terrorism/

saharareporters.com (2018). AT A GLANCE: The DSS Breakdown Of How Politicians ‘Bribed’ Oshiomhole In Dollars. SaharaReporters, New York Nov 15, 2018 http://saharareporters.com/2018/11/15/glance-dss-breakdown-how-politicians-bribed-oshiomhole-dollars

Usman, Z (2012). Nigeria’s First Mass Wedding. NigeriansTalk May 20, 2012. Accessed 15 Nov 2018. https://nigerianstalk.org/2012/05/20/nigerias-first-mass-wedding/

INFRASTRUCTURAL PROVISION IN COLONIAL PERIOD

by
Babatunde Fagoyinbo

Colonial Era Infrastructures

INTRODUCTION

Birds Prepare Their Nests for Comfort

A newly resettled rodent through capture would search for a means of escape, if it fails, it would search out materials for building a nest and make itself comfortable. So also are birds. If it locates a new settlement by itself, it will prepare a comfortable nest and do everything possible to ensure its safety.

Man wants to maintain a certain standard of living below which he feels uncomfortable. Once he is in control, he carries out every activity that will ensure that the standard he is used to is either met or surpassed.

Towards the end of 1979, a group of students gathered themselves in a bid to denounce apartheid. It was a wonderful and welcome idea. They showed a film that presented a farmstead with the owner, his wife, a child and a dog occupying a two-bedroom duplex with two large sitting rooms, an expansive kitchen, two balconies and a terraced and floral-decorated surrounding. Each of the workers’ apartments contained a sitting room and a bedroom large enough to contain minimal sitting chairs and a bed respectively. The family of the worker that was shown comprised the man, his wife, five children and three family members, something similar to Figure 2)

That film was a wrong prelude to the message to be passed across.

As the lecture was about to begin, I asked for permission to raise an observation. The permission was granted and I observed as follows:

  1. The Boer built a house that was comfortable and adequate to the standard of life he’d been exposed to;
  2. He built a house that he believed was adequate for his workers and enough to accommodate all;
  • He chose to limit his family to three persons and a dog, it might be providence that chose the size for him;
  1. The worker decided to procreate five children and possibly expecting more;
  2. Some members of his family and/or his wife’s felt it was comfortable for them to squat with him and his family agreed to it;
  3. Can you please assess and compare these items I’ll mention as part of this lecture you want to present?
    1. The percentage of junior staff accommodated by this university and the percentage of professors accommodated; and
    2. The level of disparity between a professor’s lodge and a junior staff lodge with respect to that of the Boer and his workers’ lodges.

 

Farm Workers’ Housing. Insert 1 Boer’s House; Insert 2 Boer’s Family

The colonialists didn’t include these acts in their handover notesI thank God it was then; not now. I might have been lynched and killed. The seminar couldn’t hold; though I suggested that the seminar should be postponed until they got these facts. I hate apartheid. It is going on right now in Nigeria, as well as other countries in Africa. Certain ethnic group hiding under religion and right of grazing have taken it upon themselves to kill and slaughter human beings without the government doing anything about it. Human beings have been forced into Internally Displaced Persons’ (IDP) Camps for cattle to take over their homes and farms

Pre-Colonial Era Infrastructure

Basic framework of interdependent networks made up of facilities, services and personnel are needed for effective productive and efficient functioning of a community, organisation or society. For the well-being, economic growth and prosperity of any community, there must be integrated, purposeful, sustainably designed infrastructure for harnessing resources, carrying/transporting them to processing centres, processing to semi-finished or finished products, conveying to locations of needs and executing distribution capabilities that provide a reliable flow of products and services essential to the accomplishment of the objectives and aspirations of the community in relation to other communities.

Administration

In the North, the Hausa adopted a feudal system of government which was also inherited by the Fulani, their conquerors, with power centralised and later delegated to emirs who were vassals of the Sultan of Sokoto. However, Islamic laws did give specific powers to the emirs while traditions and conventions stated the limits of their power. The feudal system of government was found suitable to Britain that did not want to invest much on personnel.

Modernisation of the feudal form of government brought in a well-organised fiscal system and a trained judiciary. The Kanuri founded a dynasty in Bornu about a century before the modern states of the Hausa. Like the Hausa, the Kanuri had also established a relatively powerful type of government.

In the West, culturally the most homogeneous area, the Yoruba and the Edo operated a modern form of government as empires (Benin, Ife and Oyo) and Kingdoms. The paramount rulers operated their respective territories through their chiefs. The chiefs collected tribute from the people and divided it with the Oba of Benin, Ooni of lfe, the Alaafin of Oyo respectively. In Yorubaland, outside lfe and Oyo, Oba was the central chief. He was the priest as well as the protector of his subjects. He was the symbol of peace and honour but answerable to Ooni of lfe and Alaafin of Oyo depending on which empire he belonged to.

The most heterogeneous part of Nigeria is the East with the lgbos as the majority of the population. But for the riverine areas, the people were elaborately organised into small semi-autonomous communities as clan, village, or family. Kingship exists in Calabar, Opobo, Bonny, Ogoni and Onitsha with political powers comparable to that of Yoruba Obas.

Physical infrastructure provision

Pre-colonial physical infrastructures available in Africa are limited to bush paths, carved boats, hoes, cutlasses, baskets, calabash, clay pots, earth-mound stoves, mortar and pestle and in the Savannah belt we have in addition donkeys, bullocks and camels to assist in the transportation of goods. Water supply is limited to scooping of ponds and digging of wells while we still transport in the rainforest belt carrying loads on our heads. To date, our agriculture has not advanced beyond that level. Our healthcare delivery system has gone worse; having now more than 90% of our herbal healthcare centres as fake.

Economic infrastructure

Prior to the British effective occupation of present-day Nigeria, there were various empires and kingdoms with their respective modes of administration centred on joint ownership of land but trusted into the hands of family heads in the southern parts and community heads in the north. There were periodic markets that bound neighbouring communities together and interconnected by footpaths.

The transportation network was controlled by nature. In the southern parts, transportation was facilitated by waterways that had the capacity to take paddled boats. The sizes of the boats were dictated by the available depth of water and range of navigation limited by the reach of stable flows. the impressive network of Lower Niger, Benue, Donga, Katsina-Ala, Gongola, Cross, Ogun, Osun and Anambra Rivers and the numerous creeks along the coast provided routes of contact between the peoples cutting across the north and south axis, while the associated trading posts and fortes provided the points of exchange of goods and farm produce. Land route networks were dense in Benin, Igala, Igbo and Yoruba areas facilitated by established empires like Benin, Ife and Oyo, and various Igala and Yoruba kingdoms,

In the north, transportation was facilitated by the use of beasts of burden (oxen, camels and the donkey) as against the south where due to tsetse infestation human carriage was predominant. The Niger-Benue combination nurtured three major kingdoms: The Jukun Empire embraced most of the Benue valley and exercised influence over much of northern Nigeria as far as Kano, and as far as the estuary of the Cross River in the south; the Igala kingdom controlled areas around the confluence of the Niger and Benue, and traded below the confluence as far south as Aboh and Onya at the head of the Niger Delta. The big rivers Niger and Kaduna form the axes of the country of Nupe kingdom. These rivers also served as the kingdom’s effective and natural system of communication. The strategic location of these three kingdoms on the Niger-Benue meant that the history of traffic on these rivers would have a great deal to do with the history and relations of peoples comprising them (Agajelu, 2018).

Land routes made Awka to penetrate into many parts of the Igbo hinterland with their crafts and blacksmithing and carving, the Nok culture, the Ife and Benin bronze crafts, the Oyo aso oke and the Egba aso adire textiles all survived mainly on land routes. Kano, Maiduguri axis thrived on caravans to Timbuktu and the horn of Africa and the Arabs.

Agriculture was mainly hoe and cutlass technology and irrigation limited to shadoof system. Healthcare delivery was herbal and dosages were at the discretion of the herbalists; mystified in incantations. With respect to the pre-colonial use of currency, trade by barter was a medium of exchange. However, in an attempt to unify the mode of valuation and create a medium that would be acceptable, there were several creations across the ethnic groups and over time, multiple currencies emerged with some monies locally produced and acquired, and others imported through intercontinental trades, such as the Atlantic slave trade. Cowries were imported to West Africa via land from the Maldives Islands and later became one of the currencies of the slave trade, augmented by copper manilas (bracelets), iron bars, textiles, glass beads, liquors, and other imported objects (Guyer and Pallaver, 2018).

Infrastructures Provision in the Colonial Era

The first set of Europeans that visited Africa came for trade. Due to the problems of access, their operations were largely limited to the riverine areas but their impacts were felt in the hinterland through the activities of local traders who purchased goods from the hinterland to sell to the European traders. The riverine traders built warehouses and river ports as deemed necessary.

Others were Arabs who came by caravans through the desert. They left no infrastructures for history but brought Islam.

Next were the missionaries and the explorers who were respectively adapters to local conditions to be able to win the people for Christ and field men who moved from site to site in search of resources available and returned home for their reports. Infrastructures were not paramount to their missions.

With the advent of the slave trade, the operation remained the same. They had no need for infrastructures other than the “warehouses” used and which were unhealthy

Infrastructure is fundamental to success in businesses because businesses need roads to have production inputs delivered and hence to deliver finished products and services to their customers. The slave merchants contented themselves with delivery to them at the river and ocean ports in the coastal areas and trekking along the Sahara Desert.

Incursions into Africa

 

Pre-Colonial Africa

Germany’s fall in WW1 resulted in dividing its colonies between Britain and France to administer on behalf of the League of Nations (history.com, 2018). While France appointed ministers among the people to represent their people in France, Britain used indirect rule. Before 1880, Europeans had only made small incursions into Africa, with forts and trading posts mainly around the coast; the interior, until then, remained largely inaccessible to Europeans because of disease and difficulty of travel. In 1884-5, the Berlin Conference was called to carve up Africa between Britain, France, Belgium, Spain, Portugal and Germany. The Berlin Conference laid down ground rules for the partitioning of Africa. They drew lines on a map of places they had never been to, with no regards for existing kingdoms, geography or the people that lived there; believing that they were bringing civilisation to ‘savage peoples’ (Boddy-Evans, 2017). Navigation on the Niger and Congo rivers was to be free to all, and to declare a protectorate over a region the European coloniser must show effective occupancy and develop a ‘sphere of influence’. They introduced Christianity, trade, education, justice and a good deal of exploitation and forced labour. They also introduced cash crop agriculture to feed their home industries with raw materials.

India championed the quest for independence commencing with the idea of an Indian nationalist movement opposed to British rule dated from the 1850s. (EB, 2018) and actualising same in August 1947.

The actualisation of socio-economic is contingent on human capital made up of trained and motivated people of great ideas and abilities, capable of innovation, exploration, science and philosophy. The existence of a committed coordinating team, the government in the case of a country, to channel the aggregate action of these human resources acting in concert determines the status of the community.

Infrastructures Emplacement

Provision of Colonial Infrastructure

Administration

Upon amalgamation of the Southern and Northern Protectorates, indirect rule was practiced in the north using the existing traditional rulership system, while local authorities comprising District, Divisional and Provincial Councils were established in the south. Occupation was not without stiff resistance from the indigenous chiefdoms, kingdoms and empires. This made the British imperial government foist on the people coercive administrative instruments intended to extract their obedience and submission.

Under the Indirect Rule system, local authorities were conferred with legislative, judicial and executive control over their communities; empowering them to make laws, regulate the conduct of affairs in their areas of jurisdiction, adjudicated cases and carry out administrative functions with the sole objective of maintaining law and order and general development in their localities.

The colonial army, the police, the judiciary and prison services served as the main instruments of coercion. In the 1880s, the British government established the West African Frontier Force. The WAFF served to subjugate and “pacify” the people of the colony. With the enormous military might of the colonial power, the people were forced to submit to the colonial administration

Banking and Currency

Monetisation was a major aim of the colonial fiscal policy to enable the integration of the colonial economy into the imperial capitalist economy. A new and common currency was needed to replace the different currencies circulating in various parts of the country. A common currency would ensure portability, sustenance of export market economy and the establishment of a national market. The introduction of the British coins met a strong competition from the manila which was highly valued at the time. Acceptance of the British currency was made possible through the expansion of wage labour, taxation payable only with the metropolitan currency, penetration of the colonial economy by the British capitalism and integration of the local economy into the metropolitan system

The monetisation of the Nigerian economy necessitated the establishment of commercial banks. The first successful bank to operate in Nigeria was established in Lagos in 1892 by African Banking Corporation but it was sold to Elder Dempster who transformed it to Bank of British West Africa (BBWA) in 1893 BBWA changed its name to Bank of West Africa (BWA) in 1957 and was bought over in 1965 and renamed it Standard Bank of West Africa. In 1971, Standard Bank of Nigeria placed 13% of its share capital with Nigerian investors. It eventually changed its name to First Bank of Nigeria in 1979 (revolvy.com, 2018). It was the sole operating bank until Barclays Bank was established in 1917 (barclays.com, 2018). In 1948, the British and French Bank for commerce and industry, which later became the United Bank for Africa, was established (2018).

The banks favoured mainly the British business circle until 1959 when the Central Bank was established in Nigeria to regulate the activities of these banks. The excesses of these banks led to the emergence of some indigenous banks (Industrial and Commercial Bank, 1929 Mercantile Bank 1931; Nigerian Farmers and Commercial Bank, 1947) which, however, experienced early demise due to factors that ranged from mismanagement, accounting incompetence, embezzlement, the Great Depression and unhealthy competition from the metropolitan banks (Agajelu, 2018; Ajayi and Sosan, 2018).

Transportation.

Transport, the cornerstone of civilisation, is an essential part of human activity development and it is essential to economic growth. As society and economic organisations become more complex, the relevance of transport grows. The complexity of transportation in any community is a reflection of its economic status reason being that a large proportion of its economic activities are largely dependent on an efficient network of roads. Transportation projects are: capital intensive; require long gestation periods; traffic volume, flow and pattern dependent and connective in nature.

Transportation infrastructures are usually provided by the government as social services to the population because of their capital-intensive nature. This explains why governments all over the world take responsibility for the provision of transport infrastructures; irrespective of their viability. Undoubtedly, the growth, development and functioning of an economy requires the use of transport; principally connecting raw materials to processing centres and products to consumption centres

Water Transport

 

This Mode of Water Transport is Still Typical

In north-eastern Nigeria, Hadejia River and others flow into the Lake Chad. Other major coastal rivers in South-western Nigeria include River Ogun, River Osse and Oshun River, while the coastal rivers in South-eastern Nigeria include Cross River, Imo River,Aboine (Ebonyi) River and other tributaries of the River Niger such as Anambra and Mamu Rivers. The major inland waterways in Nigeria that span much of the country is the Rivers Niger and Benue together with their tributaries Donga, Katsina-Ala, Gongola on the Benue River and Sokoto and Kaduna on River Niger. The major rivers meet at Lokoja where they dissect the country into east, west and north sections and later enter the Gulf of Guinea through a large network of creeks and distributaries which form the Niger Delta. The two rivers offer links to countries bothering Nigeria in the North and East respectively.

The role of the inland waterways and the seaports in the economic development of Nigeria was such that the numerous ports along the coasts and rivers of the country expanded, declined or completely disappeared as the pattern of trade within the country and with the outside world changed. Initially, there were scattered small trade activities along the coastline such as Lagos, Gwato, Forcados, Koko, Burutu, Akasa, Brass and Calabar, among others, each with a very limited hinterland trading variously in slaves and oil palm produce. However, as the penetration and subsequent control of the interior continued new trade routes were established and consequently, some ports such as Gwato, Brass, Koko, Forcados and others declined in importance or became extinct while other ports such as Lagos, Warri and Port-Harcourt became dominant (Onokala, 2015).

The early European traders relied on water transport using the numerous creeks and rivers from where they communicated with specialist traders from the inland trading communities such as Arochukwu, Awka and Nkwere traders in the interior of south-eastern Nigeria until the latter half of the 19th Century. In addition, some coastal and riverine communities such as the Efik, Opobo, Bonny and Calabar people traded directly with the European ships (Onokala, 2015).

Main Water Routes along the Coast and Major Rivers

Develop, own and operate ports and harbours. The years (1914 to 1953) were periods in which ports administration in Nigeria was under the auspices of Marine Department and which did not witness any remarkable port extension. The ports were characterized by narrow passages leading to shallow rivers on which vessels had to sail, and lack of dredging facilities to keep them open as much as possible (Brown, 2013). Onokala (2002) noted that the period after World War I and II witnessed remarkable development in water transportation in Nigeria, mainly through such improvements as introducing powered motor boats, government launches, motorised ferries in addition to engine boats and canoes for carrying goods and passengers along the River Niger and other major rivers and for transportation from one side of the river bank to another; the Nigerian Ports Authority having been established as an autonomous public corporation to manage ports and inland waterways (Brown, 2013) in March 1954 by the Ports Act of 1954 under the name, Nigerian Ports Authority (Badejo and Solaja, 2017; NPA, 2017). The NPA’s mandate consists of:

  • Provide a safe and navigable channel
  • Offer cargo handling and storage services
  • Maintain Port facilities and equipment
  • Ensure safety and security
  • Develop and own property

It is pertinent here to reinstate that the transport system was financed to facilitate the improvement and expansion of British trade and the distributive system (Agajelu, 2018). This should not be considered as a minus to the colonists but rather to our inability to maintain and improve upon them.

Timeline on Water Transport

1906:   the Nigerian Marine was created (Badejo and Solaja, 2017).

1907:   Commencement of work on the moles project deepening of the approach channel and the harbour to admit ocean-going ships to berth. 2 Small wharves were first constructed at Iddo and at the east mole site. By August 1913, with the attainment of a sixteen-foot draught over the bar for seven consecutive months, the long-desired goal of port development at Lagos was achieved

1909:   The effort towards the provision of facilities for ocean-going vessels started with the          opening of Lagos Lagoon (NPA< 2018)

1913    The Apapa Port in the South West was earmarked for development (NP, 2018).

   The construction of PH Port began on Bonny River. Skeletal services for coal loading      commenced through small wharves NPA (2018)

1916:   a berth for colliers was dredged for PH Port and its construction was completed (Brown, 2013)

1921    Construction of the first four deepwater berths of 548.64m at the Apapa Port began (NPA, 2018)

1923:   the construction of the main general cargo wharf for PH Port began (Brown, 2013)

1956:   Inland waterways department under the Federal Ministry of Transport was established Badejo, 2010)

1957:   Extension of the PH wharf by 1,600 feet (Brown, 2013)

1958:   linking the existing PH wharf electrically with the new ring circuit and construction work on the ports’ railway track and a new locomotive shed and fuelling point were completed and brought into operation (Brown, 2013).

1960:   The PH wharf which began in 1957 was first opened in October 1960 by Princess Alexandra (Brown, 2013)

 The Railway

The decision to delve into the expensive investment in railways in the Nigerian colony was influenced by a number of reasons (Agajelu, 2018). They included:

  1. Colonial Train (Locomotive)

    The desire to expand British trade by the opening up of the Nigerian interior as a new market for British goods.Curiosity in Britain about Nigerian interior.

  • To reach the produce centres remote to the inland waterways (Figure), to help the colonial merchants in moving cash crops and extractive minerals from their respective sources to the harbours for export.
  1. To facilitate the transportation of the bulk import and export commodities in view of the absence of good roads and unavailability of heavy haulage road vehicles.
  2. To establish a more flexible movement of colonial administrative personnel in the vast colony especially after the amalgamation of 1914.
  3. To facilitate the exercise of military control of inland territories.

Conception began in 1877 and construction of the railway started in 1898 at Iddo.

Timeline on the Establishment of Nigerian Rail Transport

1877: Conception of the need for rail transport (Agajelu, 2018)

1898:   Commencement of construction of the first phase of Nigeria’s railway network (Ayoola, 2016).

1901:   The railway extended from Lagos (Iddo) on the south coast to Abeokuta and later Ibadan; a distance of about 120 miles (95 km) (Ayoola, 2016).

            The northern line started in1901 at Zungeru, onwards to Kaduna (Agajelu, 2018)

1911, The Baro-Kano line was completed (Ayoola, 2016)

1912:   The Baro-Kano line was joined with the Lagos Railway line at Minna (Ayoola, 2016). Trains had to be ferried across River Niger at Jebba

1915:   The construction of Jebba Bridge across River Niger was completed

            Extension of the southern railway to Kano in the north (Ayoola, 2016).

1916:   Construction of the Eastern line fromPort Harcourt line was constructed to Enugu (Ayoola, 2016).

1932:   Eastern Line finally reached Kaduna due to the completion of Markudi Bridge (Ayoola, 2016).

1945:   Rail network reached Kaura Namoda in northwest and Nguru in the northeast (Ayoola, 2016)

1955:   Transformation from Department of Railways to Nigerian Railway Corporation

Road network

Although the outboard engine boat (the Erico) was used on the River Niger between Onitsha and Asaba.  a two-section railway bridge (with a total span of 1,795 feet [547 m]) over the Niger River was commissioned in 1915.

In Nigeria, although existing bush paths were widened to form a skeletal grid of road network, roads were not widely developed until the advent of motor vehicles in the 1920’s and 1930’s and extensive road development took place only after World War II.

In 1926, the road system of Nigeria was classified into three major types:

  1. Federal Trunk A Roads;
  2. Regional/State Trunk B Roads; and
  • Provincial/Local Government Trunk C Roads.

In this way, the Federal, regional and provincial/local governments were given separate responsibilities for the planning, construction and maintenance of roads in the country.

Although roads were primarily built to feed the railways and be complementary to them, roads eventually took over from the railways as the country’s road network improved and captured more and more traffic from the railways, especially after independence in 1960. The new roads resulted in tremendous savings in travel time and thus:

  1. Encourage the migration of population from the hinterlands to the new transport routes thus giving rise to a ribbon-like concentration of towns and villages along both sides of the new roads; and
  2. Provide employment for drivers, mechanics, spare parts dealers, vulcanizers, petrol stations, car washers and other related activities and their numbers have increased in recent times. The employment generating and other multiplier effects resulting from these forms of linkages have gone a long way towards the modernisation and rapid development of the Nigerian economy. Roads are also very important for successful tourism activities in the country.

Air transport

In 1920, A Royal Air Force aircraft landed on a polo field in Maiduguri. This marked the beginning of aviation practice in Nigeria and thenceforth continued to operate in West Africa with a squadron stationed in Sudan by 1925. The British commander sought approval from the Colonial Office in England to operate frequent cross-country flights from Khartoum to Maiduguri. By 1930, civil and military aircraft were carrying passengers across boundaries and touching down in places like Kano, Sokoto, Bauchi, Minna, Oshogbo and Lagos while British Imperial Airways carried regular passenger and mail services. Subsequently, Lagos and Accra became hubs for flights en route to the Middle East and India.

West Africa Airways Corporation

The Royal Air Force subsequently extended its services to Takoradi, Fort Lamy and Cairo. Aerodromes, stores and quarters were built for staff and to serve as night stop accommodation for pilots.

The Dakota aircraft was used extensively; and air services were operated from Lagos to Port Harcourt, Enugu, Jos, Kaduna and Kano until May 1946. After the Second World War, the economic recession which occurred in Europe compelled a wide influx of Europeans to West Africa which was then the main source of obtaining raw materials for European industries. This resulted in the development of a wide market and the consequent economic boom in the area. By then, nationalist agitations for independence had intensified in the four British West African colonies—Nigeria, Gold Coast (Ghana), Gambia and Sierra Leone.

The West Africa Airways Corporation (WAAC) was formed by Nigeria, the Gold Coast Siera Leone and Gambia by an Order-in-Council of the Colonial Office in 1946 as a result of their meeting of May 15 1946, and also handle the recurrent problem of transport and communication between the British Isles and the colonies. BOAC provided the technical and commercial staff.

In effect, the WAAC became a public corporation set up by the colonies to develop efficient air transport services in West Africa. It started operation with an initial capital outlay of £465,000 provided by the colonies and a Wet Lease Dore aircraft. Its operation was supervised by the West Africa Air Transport Authority (WAATA), which had powers to legislate and execute policies. WAATA’s supreme body consisted of the Governors of the colonies with the Governor of Nigeria as the presiding officer. In addition to its powers, WAATA was charged with the responsibility to keep under review all air matters of importance likely to affect aviation in the territories of member states.

WAAC took over the major air routes that had been established by the Royal Air Force in West Africa up till 1956. On 31 March 1948 WAAC became responsible for the operation of the inter-Colonial West African coastal services and extended operation to Freetown, Bathurst and Dakar. The airline began a Lagos-Khartoum service with Bristol 170s in April 1950

As the member states gained Commonwealth status from the United Kingdom, they set up their own carriers, namely: Ghana Airways; Sierra Leone Airways; and Gambia Air Shuttle (Magoon, 2016; en.wikipedia.org, 2018; Tutu, 2018). In June 1958, Nigeria signed an agreement with the Fokker Aircraft Works in Holland, the company from which the new Nigeria Airways would be buying its middle range jets for Nigeria’s domestic and West African routes. On August 11, 1958, On October 1, 1958, the West African Airways Corporation was renamed WAAC (Nigeria) Limited with the Nigerian government jointly owning the shares with the British Overseas Airways Corporation and Elder Dempster. Nigeria owned a majority share of fifty-one per cent.

Power Supply

The history of electricity development in Nigeria can be traced back to the end of the 19th Century when the first generating power plant was installed in Marina, Lagos, in 1896 (nercng.org, 2018), thirteen years after its introduction in England. Its total capacity was 60kW. After the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorates in 1914 to form modern Nigeria, other towns in the country started to develop an electric power supply system on the individual scale. The following major cities thus had a dose of electricity supply in the following order: Port Harcourt (1928); Kaduna (1929); Enugu (1933); Maiduguri (1934); Yola (1937); Zaria (1938); Warri (1939); and Calabar (1939).

1898:   Electric street lighting was introduced in Lagos (Echeruo, 1977).

1923:   Ijora Power Station, formally commissioned (Echeruo, 1977).

1929:   Nigerian Electricity Supply Company was established (nercng.org, 2018)

1946:   Nigerian Government Electricity Undertaking (NGEU) was established (Adesope, 2013).

1950:   Electricity Corporation of Nigeria (ECN) was established (Awosope, 2014).

            Nigeria Dam Authority NDA) was established (Awosope, 2014).

1951: April, ECN, officially took over all electricity supply activities in Nigeria (Awosope, 2014).

1956:   Commisioning of the Ijora power station February (Awosope, 2014). If Adesope’s report is correct, it is likely to be an expansion scheme in view of increased population.

Water Supply

The responsibility for water supply in Nigeria is shared among the three levels of governance: the federal; the state; and the local governments. The federal government is in charge of water resources management; state governments have the primary responsibility for urban water supply while the local governments together with communities are responsible for rural water supply.

1862: Sir John Glover, an early colonial governor of Lagos, introduced public wells to the city, but the quality of water from such wells was variable (Olukoju, Undated-a).

1864:   Deliberations on how to secure safe potable water began (Olukoju, Undated-a).

1910:   Completion of the Iju waterworks, located some 1,000 feet below the confluence of the Adiyan river and the Iju stream and conveyed to Lagos via a cast iron main trunk with a diameter of 28 inches(Olukoju, Undated-a).

1915:   Formal commissioning by 1915 by Nigeria’s Governor-General, Sir Frederick Lugard on 1 July. The scheme had an initial capacity of about two and a half million gallons per day, sufficient for 115,000 persons, more than half the population of Lagos. It consisted of three giant engines which pumped 5,000 gallons of water per minute. A total of 200 fountains were provided all over the city and 250 hydrants were installed to provide water in case of fire (Olukoju, Undated-a).

1933:   On 30 March water charges were introduced but resisted (Olukoju, Undated-a).

1940:   Lagos Township Ordinance (chapter 59) of 19 March 1940 fixed new water rates (Olukoju, Undated-a).

1943:   the capacity of Iju WW plant was increased to six million gallons per day and another cast iron trunk with a diameter of 26 inches was laid to facilitate supply to Lagos (Olukoju, Undated-a).

1944:   The first ten-year plan (1944 – 1956) included in its overall budget about 5.7% of the total expenditure for the water sector (Ajibade et al, 2015).

      Concrete open wells were constructed under the supervision of Public Works Department (PWD), of the Regional Governments who were responsible for providing safe water to the rural communities (Ajibade et al, 2015).

1954:   With the creation of regional governments, the financial and technical responsibilities for developing new water schemes were taken over by the regional governments who also assigned supervisory high-level manpower to oversee operations and maintenance (Ajibade et al, 2015).

in a few towns managed at the lowest administrative level. Amongst the early beneficiaries of public water supply in Nigeria in the early twentieth century were Lagos, Calabar, Kano, Ibadan, Abeokuta, Ijebu Ode (Ogun State) and Enugu.

Sanitation and Healthcare Delivery

 

Jericho Hospital Ibadan

As settlements grew there arose the need for concerted efforts at keeping the environment safe for human settlements. This led to the establishment of sanitary inspection with responsibilities of ensuring:Sanitation has to do with such public health conditions that incorporate clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage. In agrarian communities sanitation may not pose very serious problems as there would be much space to keep human wastes far away from settlements; thus, reducing the possibility of transmission of contagious diseases.

  • Routine sanitary inspection of houses, markets, schools and
  • Waste disposal and environmental sanitation, pollution control and industrial sanitation.
  • Vector and pest control e.g. Malaria control
  • Prosecution of public health offenders in the court
  • Meat and food inspection
  • The disposal of the dead (corpses)
  • Occupational health and factory inspection
  • Vaccination/inoculation of both schoolchildren and adults.
  • Health education on personal and public hygiene.

In Nigeria, the development of environmental health has had a more challenging history. As far back as the 18th century, the Colonial government took the issue of preventive health services serious because of the need to prevent the breeding of mosquitoes, which was a major killer of the colonial settlers. They introduced the then Sanitary Inspectors to the Colony of Lagos h a position that earned him a seat in the Legislative Council in 1913 on the amalgamation of both the Southern and Northern Protectorates of Nigeria (ehorecon.gov.ng).

In 1920, the Nigerian School of Hygiene was established in Yaba, Lagos (Omipidan, 2018).

Healthcare delivery is summarized thus (Table 1).

Table 1: Timeline on Pre-Colonial Healthcare Delivery

Housing

Formal intervention into the housing sector in Nigeria dated back to the colonial administration, following the unfortunate outbreak of the bubonic plaque of 1928 in Lagos (Bigon, 2016; Faleye, 2017). This necessitated the establishment of the Lagos Executive Development Board LEDB in 1928 (articlesng.com, 2018) as the main organ for Town planning and housing development and subsequent ushering of Nigerian public housing programmes intervention like  the evacuation and drainage of entire swampy neighbourhoods (such as Oko Awo) and re-settling of the people on the mainland. This was the genesis of the establishment of the Yaba and Ebute Metta housing schemes (articlesng.com, 2018)

The policies are modest with the ultimate aim of addressing the housing problem at a National scale with a focus on the provision of expatriate quarters (Oni, 1989) and some selected indigenous staff in Railways, Marine, Police and Armed forces. Government residential areas (GRA) were established as well as some “African Quarters”. No effort was made by the government to build houses for sale or rent to the public and little effort was made to allow the growth of housing estates outside the GRAs (articlesng.com, 2018).

With the approval of the Lagos Central Planning Scheme in 1954, LEDB attempted to solve the problem of housing development in the metropolis. This led to the establishment of the following estates

  1. Workers’ Housing Estate and re-Housing Estate, Surulere;
  2. Akinsemonyi and Eric Moore Housing Estate, Surulere; and
  • Workers’ Housing Scheme and Sites and Services Estate in Surulere, Apapa, Ikoyi, Ilupeju and Isolo

In 1955, revived concern for slum clearance brought the central Lagos slum clearance scheme into effect. The scheme opened up Apapa and later Victoria Island as high and low-density areas of Lagos.

The Nigerian Building Society was established in 1956 to provide mortgage loans. Lean financial resources and poor response of the public to the scheme skewed the operation of the NBS to poor performance (articlesng.com, 2018).

 

Colonial House, Port Harcourt

In 1958, the Western Regional Government pioneered the establishment of housing corporations (Olukoju, Undated-b). Other regions soon followed suit. The main function of the housing corporations was the construction of housing units for sales to members of the public and the issuance of loans to whoever wished to build their own houses on their land.The construction of senior civil servant quarters in the capital city of Lagos and regional headquarters like Kaduna, Ibadan and Enugu are some of the practical efforts made at the same time with some form of rent subsidy and housing loans.

Note:

This article is presented with the view of raising concern for the development of the “developing countries”, not to condemn any government but to create awareness and fashion out concrete paths towards development. While African nations will be the focus, examples will be drawn from other regions. It is hoped that peoples from other nations will contribute positively to the programme of fashioning out the path of development.

There is a Yoruba adage that says “Eepa npa ara ę o ni oun npa’ja, t’aja ba ku n’ibo ni eepa yio wa?” meaning “The dog worm is carrying out its extermination; believing that it is killing the dog, where will be its habitation at the demise of the dog?”

This applies to African (and their likes) leaders who are busy carting away the resources of Africa into foreign lands to keep for their children. The Lord who created us said “So shall my word ‘If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep. (Ex 22:1,KJV)’ be that goeth forth out of my mouth: it shall not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it” (Isa 55:11, KJV). To those who assume that the grace has covered their iniquities “And Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the Lord; Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have taken any thing from any man by false accusation, I restore him fourfold” (Luke 19:8, KJV) to which Jesus replied “This day is salvation come to this house, forsomuch as he also is a son of Abraham. For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost” (Luke 19:9-10, KJV).

Any comment that does not address the subject of discussion will be spammed

REFERENCES

Agajelu, AC (2018).     The Colonial Infrastructural Development in Nigeria with Particular Emphasis on the Railway. Accessed 15 Oct 2018. https://www.academia.edu/12413932/the_colonial_infrastructural_development_in_nigeria_with_particular_emphasis_on_the_railway

Ajayi, TA and  M Sosan (2018). The Evolution of Nigerian Banking System, Supervision and Current Challenges. Accessed 16 Oc 2018 https://www.academia.edu/3807072/the_evolution_of_nigerian_banking_system_supervision_and_current_challenges._by_toluwani_a._ajayi

Ajibade, FO; JR Adewumi; OM Ojo; JO Babatola; and AM Oguntuase (2015). 2015 Conference Proceedings: National Development Strategies toward Sustainable Civil Infrastructure.Nigerian Institution of Civil Engineers: Sustaining the World’s infrastructure (A Division of the Nigerian Society of Engineers)

articlesng.com (2018). Mortgage Banking in Nigeria Accessed 25 Oct 2018. http://articlesng.com/mortgage-banking-nigeria/

Awosope, CA (2014).  Nigeria Electricity Industry: Issues, Challenges and Solutions. Public Lecture Series. Vol. 3, No. 2, October, 2014

Ayoola, TA (2016). Establishment of the Nigerian Railway Corporation. Journal of Retracing Africa Volume 3 | Issue 1 Article 4 December 2016

Badejo, B (2010).  Developing Inland Waterways Transportation in Nigeria: What Role for the Private Sector

Badejo, BA and OM Solaja (2017). The Nigerian seaports and development (1900-2015): Historical perspectives and dynamics. International Journal of Development and Sustainability Vol 6 No 9 (2017): Pages 1007-1024

barclays.com (2018). Barclays Bank of Nigeria Limited/Union Bank Nigeria. Accessed 16 Oct 2018. https://www.archive.barclays.com/items/show/5344

Bigon, L (2016). Bubonic plague, colonial ideologies, and urban planning policies: Dakar, Lagos, and Kumasi. Planning Perspectives. Volume 31, 2016 – Issue 2. Pp  205-226

Boddy-Evans, A (2017). Events Leading to the Scramble for Africa: Accessed 15 Oct 2017. https://www.thoughtco.com/what-caused-the-scramble-for-africa-43730

Brown, GM (2013). Port Harcourt Port and Inland Waterways in Nigeria, 1913-2010: A Historical Perspective IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). Vol 11, Issue 5 (May. – Jun. 2013), PP 74-80

EB (2018). Indian National Congress. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Accessed 15 Oct 2018.  https://www.britannica.com/topic/Indian-National-Congress

Echeruo, IM (1977). Electricity supply in Lagos, 1898-2000. Ch Two. Victorian Lagos: Aspects of Nineteenth Century Lagos Life, London: Macmillan, 1977, p. 21-45

ehorecon.gov.ng (2018). History of Environmental Health. Accessed 22 Oct 2019. http://www.ehorecon.gov.ng/welcome

en.wikipedia.org (2018). Sierra National Airlines.

Faleye, OA (2017). Environmental Change, Sanitation and Bubonic Plague in Lagos, 1924–31 International Review Of Environmental History: Volume 3, Issue 2, 2017

FGN (1986). Hydrological Year book Vol 1 (1914 – 1959). Inland waterways Department, Federal  Ministry of Transport and Aviation.

Guyer, JI and K Pallaver (2018). Money and Currency in African History. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History. Online Publication Date: May 2018

history.com (2018). Treaty of Versailles. Accessed 15 Oct 2018 https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i/treaty-of-versailles-1

Magoon, A (2016). TBT (Throwback Thursday) in Aviation History: Ghana Airways. Accessed 21 Oct 2018. https://airlinegeeks.com/2016/09/22/tbt-throwback-thursday-in-aviation-history-ghana-airways/

nercng.org (2018). History. Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Cmmission. Accessed 21 Oct 2018. http://www.nercng.org/index.php/home/nesi/401-history

NIWA (2018). National Inland Waterways AuthorityWaterways. Accessed 20 Oct 2018. https://niwa.gov.ng/waterways/

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Olukoju, A (Undated-a). Water supply in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: Developments Up To The Inauguration Of The Iju Waterworks. Ch 3 in INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND URBAN FACILITIES IN LAGOS, 1861-2000

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MAKING A SUCCESS OF CONTRACTED CHRISTIAN-MUSLIM MARRIAGE

Unequal yoking

by
Babatunde Fagoyinbo

INTRODUCTION

Christian-Muslim Marriage

We need to have a good understanding of the scriptures before delving into the affairs of marriage; otherwise, we shall be confused. Let us begin from creation “And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: So God created man …male and female created he them. And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion …” (Gen 1:26-28, KJV). This implies that man is in two components, male and female. The word man refers to both sexes and that will be the concept of this article. There will be no need to use alternative man/woman, boy/girl, he/she. This also does not prevent the use of man for males only and specifically mention woman when only the female is referred to. That was creation. Man was created last.

You do not think of who to employ until you have decided and planned what business you are going into. And the Lord God saw his loneliness “… the Lord God said, … I will make him an help meet for him….And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast …And Adam gave names to all … but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him” (Gen 2:18-20, KJV). This implies that Adam was brought into physical existence before other living creatures. To give him a wife “… the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam … and he took one of his ribs, …And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman… she shall be called Woman…Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother… and they shall be one flesh…” (Gen 2:21-25, KJV). This is God’s original plan for man. To be one with his wife; not throw her out at will. When Adam was formed, Eve was part of him.

Irrespective of the number of years that Adam had been in existence before the physical Eve, there was a component of Adam that was Eve. Adam knew that Eve was part of him when he woke after her extraction from his ribs “This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man” (Gen 2:23, KJV).

Husband-Wife Relationship

You will ask about our patriarchs who had multiple wives. You are right for the Lord Jesus answered the Jews on that matter that “…For the hardness of your heart he wrote you this precept” (Mark 10:5, KJV). God did not make provision for divorce for God is united in Himself and since He created us in His image, He expects us to be one flesh “But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female. .. one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder” (Mark 10:6-9, KJV).

Saul discussed the God-man-wife relationship as “… the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God” (1 Cor 11:3, KJV). To Muslims who are in doubt, the Qur’an says “So if you are in doubt concerning that which We have revealed unto you, then ask those who are reading the Book before you. Verily, the truth has come to you from your Lord. So be not of those who doubt (it). 10:94”.

Muhammad was aware of dissidents among the children of Israel “Is it not [true] that every time they took a covenant a party of them threw it away? But, [in fact], most of them do not believe” (2:100). Was God not aware of this scenario when He advised Muhammad to consult the people of the book? That advise still stands today and always, for God declared “For I am the Lord, I change not; therefore ye sons of Jacob are not consumed” (Mal 3:6, KJV). Aisha says that Khadija took Muhammad to a Christian convert who used to read the Gospels in Arabic” from Bukhari vol.4 book 55 ch.17 no.605 p.395. Note that Muhammad studied under a Christian convert; not just any Jew or Hebrew

Sonship of Adam

What makes you know that you are the child of your father? I’m from the most homogeneous state in Nigeria. My father’s cousin saw me in the heart of Oyo town and recognised me. I was shocked. She had never seen me before, even as a baby! What did I receive from my father? A tiny drop of sperm, not feasible to the naked eye, meets with my mother’s egg {about 100 microns (millionths of a meter)}, or roughly the thickness of a strand of hair) and then God nourished it until it becomes me. Who is the father?

The LORD God created us like He created the angels but He didn’t form us like them. He formed us in a way that would relate us close to our domain; the earth. God wants us to cherish the earth, to love it and to adequately take care of it in a sustainable manner. Knowing the earth as a component part of our body would cause us to honour and cherish it. Angels don’t have domain but man has. After my father dropped that sperm, he went about other businesses only occasionally asking my mother “How’s the baby doing? “ But God continued with the work of bringing me into the world, nurturing and caring for me so that I would be well shaped and that everything that would make me function well is done for me “And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul” (Gen 2:7, KJV).

Can you quantify the breath of life inputted into you? The breath that makes you a living soul! Can you compare that precious breath with the tiny sperm measuring about 0.002 inch (about 50 micrometres) from head to tail? Your earthly father has no choice in what you are: tall or short; fat or slim; light or dark; male or female. But the LORD God takes interest in everything concerning you, your mother, your siblings, your father, the resources they need to take care of you.

You say that you are the servant of God! How? What work do you carry out for him? Clean his farm/ Wash His clothes? Make his bed? Cook His food? What work do you do other than work out your salvation? Now, let’s look at it this way, Dictionary.com says that a servant is a person employed by another, especially to perform domestic duties. A cook is a servant. You are an old person and a cook is employed for you, then you cook falls sick and cannot enter the kitchen. You’ll starve that day except you look for an alternative to cook for you.

Now, tell me what assignment you are charged with by God that if you don’t carry out He will have to desperately look for an alternative. God created us as His children but we fell short and descended to the rank of a servant. No, not of God but of Satan “… wasted his substance with riotous living…. How many hired servants of my father’s have bread enough… make me as one of thy hired servants” (Luke 15:12-19, KJV). But for His compassion, we have not truly repented and returned to the Father for forgiveness and reabsorption into His Vineyard but we go about labeling ourselves servants of God when, in actual sense, we are slaves to sin. The prodigal son raised his heart and his soul and looked towards his home and sought to repent. He did not just think it, he took a step of faith and headed home.

Have we got to that level? Have we repented? If we are truly servants what have the nearly 200,000,000 of us done about the Ogoja Five?

True Sonship

The Police impounded my 23-year old car in Nsukka because I was not carrying the bill of laden. I had to send the driver back for the paper. When I went to retrieve the car, I met a man who came to bail out his son that was arrested for harassing a woman on her farm. He was not ashamed to call the young man his son. If the man is decent he would, on reaching home, scold the child and threaten to disown him and declare. “You are not like me!”

Man is not only in the image of God but also in His likeness “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness” (Gen 1:26, KJV). This informs God’s decision when He sent to Pharaoh “And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the Lord, Israel is my son, even my firstborn” (Ex 4:22, KJV). If we have not accepted Christ we overrate ourselves if we call ourselves His servants. Christ said “Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin” (John 8:34, KJV).

In the course of time man began to multiply in response to the blessing at creation “That the sons of God (that is, the professors of religion, who were called by the name of the Lord, and called upon that name) saw the daughters of men (those that were profane, and strangers to God and godliness) that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose” (Gen 6:2, KJV). The generation coming out of Seth did not keep by themselves, as they ought to have done, both for the preservation of their own purity and in detestation of the apostasy. They intermingled themselves with the excommunicated race of Cain (MH, 2006). Their choices were guided by physical beauty; based their choice on the assessment which their own corrupt affections made without regard to divine instructions and became unequally yoked with strange women. No doubt, they must have married their daughters out to them too.

What Does Marriage Entail?

As a teenager, I used to read Denise Robins’ novels but when I started work I noticed that nearly all my colleagues who were married did not have the same ending as Denise Robins’ “they both lived happily thereafter”. There were mountains to climb, rivers to cross and swamp lands to pass through. Notwithstanding, I still had problems with my first relationship. I saw the problem about two years earlier than our breakup but I couldn’t leave. I kept on praying that the relationship should be terminated by God. I knew my error. I picked a relationship by myself; I never consulted Him but kept on praying that He should make her my wife. God kept on revealing to me that she was not for me.

When the break came, it was not easy but I made up my mind I won’t enter into any relationship for two years. I’d known better: I asked God to provide His choice for me. He did. My first sighting of her the spirit told me that she is my wife. We were in close proximity for about two weeks and I had every opportunity to drop a hint on having a relationship but I never did. Then, she left. I did not even blame myself for not taking the chance. The following day, she was back with an errand to her brother who was my colleague. Had she not been sent back I don’t think we would have met again.

The following morning was when I remembered the first day that I saw her and the voice that I heard. Today, we are blessed with four children and grandchildren. I have not, on any occasion wondered why I did not marry someone else. We have our differences but they make us stronger.

Conversion

An elder cousin of mine dated a Muslim babe and they eventually got married. After marriage, the babe reneged on her promise to become a Christian. My cousin never bothered himself about it until their first baby was 40 days. Then he told the wife “Our daughter will be dedicated tomorrow.”

“That’s Ok. Mama will mount her.” She replied.

“Mama is not her mother. She cannot present her to the priest.” He stated emphatically.

Notwithstanding his wife’s refusal to go with him to the Church, he instructed everybody in the family not to collect the child from her. 30 minutes later she joined them in the Church. The following week she was ready for service ahead of the husband.

Another case was a friend of mine who converted to marry a Muslim girl. The day after the marriage the father-in-law told him “Waheed, you have demonstrated love by converting to Islam to marry my daughter. By virtue of my position in Islam and the family, I cannot give my daughter in marriage to a Muslim. Your wife should also be able to demonstrate her love to you. The two of you should decide what faith you would follow but you must be of the same faith.” This is not a narrative. I was part of the system from conversion to reversal. The girl had assured him of reversal after marriage. They are happily married.

Already Married

In the case of a marriage between a Christian and a Muslim, the Muslim has acted in faith as the Qur’an allows it (Qur’an 2:221; 5:5). Even if the Muslim does not understand it at the time of the marriage, there has been no violation. However, the Christian has violated the ethics of the Christian faith. They now have the right to re-oil and rekindle their lamps, drain the oil and put off their lights or keep their lights glowing and continue praying for the spouse.

ON THE PERIPHERY

There are four possible situations that can create marriage between a Christian and a non-Christian: both were unbelievers before marriage but one of them received the light and got converted; one was a Church goer and married a Muslim but now has submitted self to Christ; One is a warm Christians married to a Church goer and One is a Christian but pushed God aside and followed their passions.

One of Unbelieving Couple Got Converted

Unequally Yoked

If one partner becomes a Christian after the marriage, the inherent struggles of living under two different authorities quickly become apparent: values will clash, attitudes will conflict, priorities will differ and desires will be at odds.  It won’t be easy for the new convert to grow in the faith. They won’t be able to share the newfound source of wisdom, comfort and joy with the spouse they loved the most. Making the other partner understand may generate ridicule.

The onus of success rests on the convert. They must be prepared for the storm. They must learn how to live their faith in a way that will attract the other partner rather than repel them, how to grow and even flourish in their relationship with Christ, irrespective of discouragement from the spouse and admit possible mistakes to restore stability to the family relationship.

A Church Goer, Married a Muslim and Became Born-again

Their case is akin to that of an unbelieving couple of which one got converted, but in addition, they carry the guilt of deception to self. This is the most common among Christian-Muslim marriages. Marriage is hard enough when you have two believers who are completely in harmony spiritually.

Warm Christians married an in-name-only Christian

The genuine Christian should’ve known the situation of the nominal Christian during the courtship days and should have taken adequate care to decide on the course of action In-name only abound all over and in every congregation.

One is a Christian but Pushed God aside for Their Passion

The temptation to get romantically involved with a non-Christian is usually not hidden and an attempt is usually made to justify it to themselves and co-worshippers. Any feeling arising from any infatuation to a non-Christian is a temptation to call right that which God calls wrong; generally, such feelings are not accompanied by any affirmation from God. You’ve definitely told a lie: “He that saith, I know him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him” (1 John 2:4, KJV). You should repent from your sin of deceit.

The Christian had probably got romantically involved having spent a great deal of time with the opposite sex one-on-one. This was what happened in my first relationship. I was coaching her for admission into a Teachers’ college. If you don’t want to get romantically involved with someone, don’t spend hours one-on-one.

Possible Outcomes of Christian–Muslim Marriage

There are only three ways an unequal marriage can turn out, (and by unequal I am willing to stretch a point and include genuine, warm Christians who want to marry an in-name-only Christian, or someone very, very far behind them in Christian experience and growth). The followings are what you are experiencing now:

  1. There is a need to sacrifice such essential Christian activities as devotional life, hospitality to believers, missionary support, tithing, raising children in the faith, fellowship with other believers;
  2. The deep unity and oneness of a marriage cannot flourish when one partner cannot fully participate in the other person’s most important commitments: this would result in the unbelievers seeing themselves as marginalised.
    1. A cousin of mine was dating a Muslim. I noticed in their album they never sat or stand fully side by side. Their sitting and standing positions were always looking in different directions. I asked him why but he dismissed it as superstitious. I told him he thought they lovd each other but that their spirits were not in agreement. They got married. Within three months there were tensions in the family. I wasn’t married then. The wife insisted he must become a Muslim. It was after they separated that my cousin regained his senses, repented and asked God for forgiveness. He loved the woman and never searched for an alternative. He was shocked , after three and a half years of separation, when the womn packed her things and came back home, unannounced; and
  • Stress, loneliness and unhappiness will result from forced co-habitation or eventual breakup.

Prayer is a wonderful instrument in this matter. The Christian should exploit this resource.

THE BIBLE HAS THE SOLUTION

Staying On

Christians are not meant to live solitary lives “And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him” (Gen 2:18, KJV); they need to find support from outside sources such as the Church and Bible study groups for the Scriptures enjoined “Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together” (Heb 10:25), KJV). Being married to an unbeliever does not alter the sacredness of the relationship, so it should be the priority of every Christian to pray for their spouses and set good examples, allowing Christ’s light to shine brightly “Do all things without murmurings and disputings” (Phil 2:14, KJV).

It is often said that each believer has their own experiences and priorities “Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee; and before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee, and I ordained thee a prophet unto the nations “Jer 1:5, KJV) that influence their unique collection of ideas, beliefs, practices, and all the other parts that make up the sum of what they mean when they say “I’m Christian,” or such remark as those who share the same religious affiliation does not necessarily share the same opinions on important issues. But it is ever ethical for Christians to commune together on what the Bible says on important issues. If we want to use our wisdom or our own experience we would falter. The Bible provides the benchmark.

The Bible is a complete manual of life and goes deeply into every situation. It is consistent on all matters. As a young Christian, I wondered why Reuben’s relationship with Jacob’s concubine and David’s illicit relationship with Uriah’s wife were recorded. The Bible wants us to know. Is God’s word not true to-date? “And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren” (Gen 16:12, KJV). The Bible recorded all so that we would learn the fact that every action we take has a spiritual impact on the creation and spiritual consequences on the immediate environment made up of you and your generations.

Let’s remind ourselves of what you’ve done by marrying an unbeliever or what situation you’ve put yourself in the period of ignorance. If you’re selected for military training, the first task you are put on is repentance “for being a civilian”. Now that you are a Christian, the first task is to realise that you are a sinner and have to repent. Repent of what?

God’s image: You are to display God’s image (Gen 1: 26) in obedience to His commands (Deut 7:3-4). Marriage is to display God’s image by obeying God’s commands for fruitfulness and dominion (Gen 1:28). Obeying God’s word is doing what pleases God. Otherwise, you are either pleasing yourself or others. And that’s idolatry.

Marriage is a partnership for God’s service: God formed other living creatures before forming Eve. To fulfil the blessing of prophecy/priesthood/kingship contained in Gen 1:28, God had to provide a suitable help in Eve. He created man and woman in relationship for competence to fulfil his calling to His image. Samson is a good example of not being able to fulfil God’s purpose when you ignore His commands “… Let me die with the Philistines. … the dead which he slew at his death were more than they which he slew in his life” (Judg 13:1-16:30, KJV).

He was aware of God’s purpose for his life. Have you realised God’s purpose for your life? Having a Christian spouse will assist you to be focused and accomplish. Had Samson prayed aright, repented and asked for full restoration, he would have received both his sight and his strength.

Marriage is harmed by sin: While Adam went about his business in the Garden, Eve glorified God. Her relationship with the husband was as designed: “a help meet”. There was a reversal of God’s will in “…thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee” (Gen 3:16, KJV). In a Christian marriage, spouses have the opportunity to call each other to submit their respective sinful wills to God’s perfect will. An unbeliever would not understand this and thus lose out on the blessing of having a spouse who calls you to submit your will to Christ, and instead have a spouse who has no interest in being called to submit their own will to Christ.

God’s commands warn against marrying unbelievers: (Deut 7:3-4; Josh 23:12). Gen 24 revealed the extent to which he planned that Isaac would not be unequally yoked. Isaac did the same to Jacob “And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and charged him, and said unto him, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan” (Gen 28:1, KJV), being disgusted with the marriage of Esau to the Hittite women. Jacob’s children refused to intermarry with unbelievers “…The soul of my son Shechem longeth for your daughter… give her him to wife. … We cannot …to one that is uncircumcised; for that were a reproach unto us (Gen 34:8-14). The hidden intention of the Shalemites is contained in “Shall not their cattle and their substance and every beast of theirs be ours? only let us consent unto them, and they will dwell with us” (Gen 34:23, KJV).

God positively pictures believing marriages: The book of Ruth presents the most beautiful picture of believers marrying. Boaz provided and protected; Ruth trusted and took the Godly initiative. It’s a wonderful love story of how a woman who has come under the wings of the Lord comes within the love of a godly man.

Christ endowed the Old Testament: Christ declared “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: …  but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven” (Matt 5:17-19, KJV).

What to do

Now that we have a good picture of God’s stand towards marriage we can look at what God expects of us “…to avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband. …, Let not the wife depart from her husband: … For the unbelieving husband is sanctified by the wife… For what knowest thou, O wife, whether thou shalt save thy husband? …” (1 Cor 7:2-17, KJV).

Christians married to unbelievers will need to pray for the power of the Holy Spirit to enable them to profess Christ and live in the light of God’s presence (1 John 1:7). They should seek God’s transforming power to change their hearts and produce the fruit of the Holy Spirit (Galatians 5:22-23). A Christian wife is obligated to have a submissive heart, even toward her unbelieving husband (1 Peter 3:1), and she will need to remain close to God and rely on His grace to enable her to do so.

Procedure

Divorce is UnChristian: Being married to an unbeliever does not alter the sacredness of the relationship, so it should be the priority of every Christian to pray for their spouses and set good examples, allowing Christ’s light to shine brightly. Exiting from the marriage is not the solution “But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery” (Matt 5:32, KJV). Matt 19:4-8 also emphasises on this. Paul was emphatic about it “The wife is bound by the law as long as her husband liveth; but if her husband be dead, she is at liberty to be married to whom she will; only in the Lord” (1 Cor 7:39, KJV). In the same way is the husband

Praying unceasingly: Christians married to unbelievers will need to pray for the power of the Holy Spirit to enable them to profess Christ and live in the light of God’s presence (1 John 1:7). They should seek God’s transforming power to change their hearts and produce the fruit of the Holy Spirit (Galatians 5:22-23). A Christian wife is obligated to have a submissive heart, even toward her unbelieving husband (1 Peter 3:1), and she will need to remain close to God and rely on His grace to enable her to do so.

Encourage your spouse: You are called simply to love your spouse (Eph 5:21-25; Tit 2:4). No matter how strong one’s walk with God, sacrificial love is a daunting standard. Indeed, the depth, breadth and intensity of the divine standard for husbands; of love, of providing for the family, of guiding the family spiritually,  may cause them more stress than we realise. So also are the homecare demands, the care of the children (the husband inclusive) etc. on the wives. ·

Although your eyes naturally fall on areas in which your spouses need to improve, you should instead look for ways to bless them with encouragement.

Love is enjoined: “Nevertheless let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and the wife see that she reverence her husband” (Eph 5:33, KJV)

God is aware of our shortcomings: God has made adequate provisions for our shortcomings and desires our salvation. He uses every opportunity to manifest His glory. You’ll be amazed when He takes over “For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren” (Rom 8:29, KJV). Howbeit you have to be patient and persevere.

Next: The Fundamentals of Major Religions

REFERENCES

MH (2006). Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible. PC Study Bible Formatted Electronic Database Copyright © 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc.

PEACE! PEACE!! PEACE!!!

Manuals of religions

 

by
Babatunde Fagoyinbo

Prologue
As much as possible, this write-up shall divorce personal opinion but draw out objective assessment or explanation of passages from the Holy Bible and only quote the noble Qur’an respectively. Learned writings will be assessed in reference to the Scriptures. Comments on this write-up should avoid name-callings, insults or threats. Comments should reference appropriately the Holy Bible, the noble Qur’an, or the Opele Ifa as the case may be. Any commentary not in line with this shall not be published and may be spammed.

This site aims at peace, national development and progress. The proprietary is Christian and believes in the spread of Christianity. The proprietary believes that God, who created the Heavens and the earth is capable of creating man in such a way that he shall have no option than to be Christian but in His infinite wisdom, He has given man free will to choose to or not worship Him.

INTRODUCTION

Engineering Workshops

I was to be posted to the Maigana Agricultural Workshop and oversee the one in Dutsin Ma while Omafuvwe was to be posted to Kaduna Garden Agricultural Workshop andoversee the one in Samaru Kataf. We were to

Mahuals of Religion

undergo some training at the repair and maintenance workshop in the defunct Funtua Agricultural Development Project, FADP. It suited me very well because my ambition, then, was to establish a heavy machinery repair and maintenance workshop as a business.

 

Mr Ferguson was the officer in charge of engineering services in Kaduna and was to arrange for the training programme but he never did. I tried everything possible to ensure he arranged it but he did not. Alhaji IAD Dutsin Ma was the boss in our Department

Of all our Divisional Engineers, two were very serious with their assignments. Their monthly reports were always on schedule and detailed. They are Salisu Mani in Mani Agricultural Division and Ango Abdullahi in Maigana Agricultural Division. Ango was very particular about the posting because he wanted me around so that we would relate to each other. He encouraged me about Maigana and assured me that there would be land for farming activities.. He once invited me to see his barn in Maigana.

Over time, Ango began to feel that I was not interested in coming because my fiancée didn’t want to live in a rural community.

“Don’t worry yourself about that your fiancée,” he once said, “I’ll introduce you to my niece, a daughter of Emir of Zazzau.”

Practical Sermon

On one of those days that I went on visits to the divisions, I met the absence of Salisu when I got to Mani. This was unusual! The staff assured me that he would soon be back. He came back to the office very late. I couldn’t carry out the assignment that I went there for that day. I had to wait till the next day. He apologised on arrival and gave the cause of his late arrival.

“The grave had been dug.” Salisu began. “There was a madman sitting under a tree nearby. We all believed that he was oblivious of what was going on. We offered the necessary prayers. Just when the corpse was to be placed in the grave, the madman jumped up with a shout of ‘Wait….Wait….Wait.’

“We all got distracted and focused on him. He gently approached us and asked ‘You want to put him here!….Alone!….What of his houses?…. His wives?….His cars?…. His horses? Are they not going with him?’ We all became sober. A lesson had been taught. A sermon had been preached. It was more heart-penetrating than the Imam’s sermon. After the burial, none of us could immediately move away. We stood in groups; ruminating over the mad man’s observations”

PEACEFUL WORKING TOGETHER

We had 12 Local Governments and thus 12 No Agricultural Engineering offices across the State under my supervision (Farm machinery hiring Service), each with a Divisional Engineer. Funtua and Kankiya Local Governments were under FADP. Abdullahi Ango and Salisu Mani are of the Hausa-Fulani extraction. They were the closest to me among the Divisional Engineers, notwithstanding the fact that I am a Christian. Each time that I visited their stations, it was like a brother-come-home. I stated earlier that one of them advised that in the case of my fiancée not willing to settle with me in a rural community he would introduce me to one of his nieces who happen to be the daughter of the Emir of Zazzau. This was in 1979

Omafuvwe and I shared an office with our immediate boss who was, then, Agricultural Engineer I. He was fully Fulani from Zaria; no mix. We used to tease him on why he could come from a family that had not mixed with the Hausa ethnic group without any misgiving. We all cracked jokes told stories and discussed issues together without any consciousness of ethnicity or religion. We were all about the same age; may be within 3-year bracket at most. I remembered a day that we visited a Fulani friend of one of us. The wife prepared lunch for us and when she brought it, passed it to the sitting room through a door blind. I was new in Kaduna then. I refused to eat. Our host had a discussion with his friend in Fulfude. A few minutes later he called the wife to come and greet us. The wife did. After her departure, both friends started to tease me and said that they hoped I would join in the meal.

It was on our way back that my colleague told me that he didn’t have to explain before the friend realised that it was probably because the wife wasn’t seen by me that I didn’t participate in the meal. He just told him that I was new in Kaduna. That was “Understanding”.

In my graduate class, my classmate requested that I should add him up for my lunch because he would not be able to go home for lunch. I told him that I had chicken soup and that I slaughtered the chicken by myself. “You are a Christian. Islam does not require me to turn down what a Christian offers because he knows our don’ts. If he offers haram the sin is his, not ours. Maa’ida: 5: “This day are (all) things Good and pure made lawful unto you. The food of the People of the Book is lawful unto you …. (Lawful unto you in marriage… chaste women among the People of the Book…”( Salih, 1997; Quran, 5:5)

Very often his wife would send roasted grated chicken to us and we would jolly over it. He was the only Muslim within the four of us; one of us is a converted Christian. Our jokes, our fun talks, and our discussions never hurt anybody. This was up to 1981.

RELIGIOUS MISDEEDS

I read some articles on religious misdeeds that equate religious intolerance with religious fanaticism. I see religious intolerance as an extreme case of religious practice while religious fanaticism is the practice of religion that makes the practitioner unreasonable in his thoughts and deeds but not with intense hatred towards practitioners of other religions.

In reality, every religious tradition is permeated with certain fundamental values relating to peace, love, sacredness of human life and human security. For many religious scholars, the essence of religion is life and the law is love. Unfortunately, these religious values have been displaced by modernism and its emphasis on secularisation. The consequence is that the modern religious universe is being subordinated to a partial group and individual values, instead of standing above them.

Religious intolerance: In simple terms, religious intolerance is the inability of an adherent of a particular religion to acknowledge, accommodate and accept the right of others to live by another faith different from his own and seeks to force their ideology on others through intimidation and is more than happy to break the law and commit religious blasphemy, including, murder, arson, looting, etc. in the name of his deity.

Religious fanaticism is an extremist sub-set of fundamentalism which makes the practitioner see only their own point of view. Fanaticism has an uncritical zeal or with an obsessive enthusiasm related to their own devotion to their religion

Religious fundamentalism: One could be a fundamentalist in any given religion and believe in the literal truth of their holy scriptures. Most practising Christians, Muslims and animists follow this strict dogma. A religious fundamentalist acts mainly within society’s law, and while it may pain them that secular society doesn’t adhere to God’s will, they recognise and respect that they are part of a larger community.

Previous Opinions

Let me, at this point review some opinions that have been presented by other learned people. I have copied the points that I believe to be relevant at this point and presented them unedited. Capitalization and periodicity at the beginning and end of each point have been inserted due to autocorrect prompting.

I will try, as much as possible, not to introduce my own bias but make quotations from the scriptures to buttress my points.

Ekanem and Ekefre (20313).

  1. Historically, religious intolerance dates back to the 1980s when the Maitasine sect emerged. This was Muslims against Muslims
  2. The north, which is predominantly Moslem see everything with the spectacle of religion. People see things from the perspective of the religion they practice. This may not be an issue as it cannot be stopped.
  • A deep reflection on religious intolerance in Nigeria will reveal that the problem is deeply rooted in the north. And this is the part of the country where the illiteracy rate is the highest. This is important but not absolute. I bought the plot of land on which I am resident from an MSc holder in Estate Management. He studied in the USA. When I needed a plot of land for a shop I discovered that he had changed his office. I called him on phone only to start asking me what I thought about Shari’ah. I told him that’s not my problem only for him to reply “What do you mean? Shari’ah is a must. Anybody who doesn’t support it must be cut down…”I didn’t see any need for further discussion

. Nuzhat (2014)

  1. Jihad results in the speedily spreading of Islam especially in Northern part of Nigeria…Then gradually it also spread in Southern part of the country mostly in Eastern region of the country. Islam spread is in the Western Region
  2. Islam is a religion which provide complete code of conduct for every human being and in Islam perspective all the Muslims are part of Islamic Ummah. The Qur’am provides Code of Conduct CoC for its adherents; the Torah provides CoC for Christians and Judaists; Orunmila provides CoC for Ifa worshippers; etc. More discussion on this will be made below.
  • People from both religions are not in state of accepting each other. This is only in the Core North. My uncle attends Church with us each time we had family functions. We usually joined him in our primary school days in fasting. Then, I was in my hometown. When he went for Hadj, the family renovated his house before he came hack- Unknown to him
  1. Muslim fanatics consider that Nigeria must be an Islamic State. Only in the Core north and among the Fulani-Hausa extraction only.
  2. The other part consider that it must be Christian State. Christians have never sneaked Canonical laws into the constitution, have never made attempts to lobby for the formation of ‘Christian States’ and no State Governor had ever banned the teaching of Islamic studies in schools nor enforce the teaching of Christion religious study in Islamic and Qur’anic schools
  3. Colonial masters play a vital role in the growth of ethnoreligious conflicts… Other ethnic groups teamed up to bring the Igbos back into Nigeria. Ethnic clashes had been there before the colonial masters but started thinning out in their time. Ethno-religious crises resurfaced 20 years after the colonial masters have left. For example, Mjr Gen Nwachukwu’s mother was from the royal family in Katsina, his father was a Roman Catholic Christian.

Mou and Mou (2017).

  1. It is not clear whether these are more prevalent among the illiterates and the less educated or even among the educated Nigerians as well. Only statistics can show this
  2. Among these categories of the most educated Nigerians are the University academic and administrative staff as well as University students. ABU Zaria and KadPoly are typical examples of hot spots of religious crises

Bolatito (2013)

  1. Government to address the conflicting duties of allowing people to exercise their religious freedom and maintaining national security. Govt is biased towards a particular religion
  2. There is need to reconcile religious freedom and national security. The need is for Nigeria to be a secular state

Njoku and Njoku (2013)

  1. Religions connotes socio-political, cultural and spiritual phenomenon with overriding influence in individual and community life of most members of the Nigeria population, and has been often suspected and accused of anti-social activities. The truth needs be told. There is only one religion that sparks up violence in Nigeria
  2. Solutions proffered after each crisis had no lasting grip on the Nigerian society to assure the uninterrupted development of the country. This is because the implementation is skewed.
  • Tolerance, dialogue, and government provision of employment opportunities would generate mutual understanding, forgiveness, spirit of live and let live in the arbitration of religious crises in Nigeria. The government can only facilitate the provision of employment opportunities. What Government should do is to ban the Almajiri culture except for Imams channel their children into the Almanjir system. They send their children into western education and encourage the masses to mass procreate for Almanjir system: a case of self-interest.

nairaproject.com ().

  1. No religious conflict in the nation is purely religious without ethnicity playing its way in it. Politics is the trigger.

Anele, D (2012).

  1. The clergy…ignore or downplay the damaging effects of certain explicit injunctions contained in “holy books” on the behaviour of believers.
  2. Many verses in The Holy Bible and The Holy Quran stipulate, endorse and promote discrimination, intolerance and violence against unbelievers
    1. Slay them wherever you find them…Idolatry is worse than carnage…Fight them until idolatry is no more and God’s religion [Islam] reigns supreme…(2: 190-193).
    2. Fighting is obligatory for you, much as you dislike it…(2: 216).
  • He that denies God’s revelations should know that swift is God’s reckoning (3:19). Knowing God’s capability to deal with issues concerning Him does not confer judgment of offenders against Him on man. Items (i) and(ii) need full discussion

Gott (2015).

I decided to include this because its definition agrees with my idea of intolerance while most of the other authors classify intolerance with fanaticism and fundamentalism. I agree with his recommendation in item (iii) below

  1. Fundamentalists act within society’s law, and while it may pain them that secular society doesn’t adhere to God’s will, they recognize and respect that they are part of a larger collective.
  2. Fanatics, on the other hand, are an extremist sub-set of fundamentalists who see only their own point of view. They seek to force their ideology on others through intimidation and are more than happy to break the law and commit religious blasphemy, including, murder in the name of their God.
  • What we must do in order to move forward and flourish as a species is to get out of our own way, and stop damaging ourselves!

DISCUSSION

Anele (2012).

Anele described himself as a humanist. This implies that he does not understand what spirituality is. On what ground, then, does feel he can discuss spiritual issues? A humanist worships his brain, the education he has attained, the authors of the books he’s read as well as my own person if he reads this write-up.

Going straight to the issue at hand:

The clergy…ignore or downplay the damaging effects of certain explicit injunctions contained in “holy books” on the behaviour of believers.

This does not apply to Christians because the Holy Bible enjoins Christians to “Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me” (John 5:39, KJV). He further advised His disciples in the Great Commission “All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth… Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: …” (Matt 28:18-20, KJV).

Apostle Paul advised Timothy “These things command and teach. …, give attendance to reading, …to doctrine” (1 Tim 4:11-13, KJV). The Christian is responsible for his actions because he has access to the scriptures.

Many verses in The Holy Bible and The Holy Quran stipulate, endorse and promote discrimination, intolerance and violence against unbelievers.

In the noble Qur’an

Ironically, there are only two passages in the passage quoted that stipulate killing by Muslims. Notwithstanding (Al-Baqarah, 2:216) cautions that God knows best.

  1. “Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you …But if they cease, then there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors” (Al-Baqarah [2:190-193]).
  2. Fighting has been enjoined upon you while it is hateful to you. But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you and, perhaps, you love a thing and it is bad for you. And Allah Knows, while you know not (Al-Baqarah [2:216]).

In the Holy Bible

Humanist that he is, I was expecting Anele to debunk the victories that the Jews assigned to God, rather than believing it, he reported that the Old Testament “contains stories upon stories of destruction of lives and property carried out by Yahweh or executed at his behest by Israelites as punishment for idolatry.” Aneke’s case is like that of the pilot in the crashed Russian plane which black box reported that the last recorded statement of the pilot was “O God!”

I will ask Anele a few questions:

  1. If you nurture a billy goat to maturity and I come to your house and carry it away for myself, what have I done? Yahweh has all the right to punish man when he worships other gods beside Him since He is the One that created him.
  2. Assume that we live in the same neighbourhood. I am to attend a crucial meeting but my wife had taken the only car out and got delayed where she went to. I walk over to you for a drop where I can easily get a taxi but you turn me out, yet not doing anything but blame me for not envisaging her possibly not returning as scheduled. Then, barely two months later, your wife gets into labour, your car decided not to function, there is nobody among your neighbors around to assist and there is a curfew imposed at that time. Am I free to believe that it is the law of retribution that caught up with you or not?
  • What is a humanist problem when the children of Israel believed that it was Yahweh that fought their wars for them when they won and it is the same Yahweh that made them to lose their wars when they served other gods?
  1. What should be a humanist’s problem with the fact that Christians believed that it is their prayers that pushed Babangida aside from power and got Abacha out of the way of the permanent presidency of Nigeria? Or his problem with the Muslims’ belief that Makarfi was able to go through the governorship of Kaduna State live because of the prayers of Christians he cared about to the extent of nicknaming him, Michael?

Anele should please study the following table

APPENDIX: BATTLES

The Holy Bible and the noble Qur’an were in existence in 1939, or earlier, when Pa Nwachukwu (Igbo Catholic) married a Katsina lady (She is said to be of the royal family in Katsina) and produced one baby that grew up to be a General in the Nigerian Amy called Ike Omar Sanda Nwachukwu. This mother of all got her cousin to marry

Israel’s Battles _(Cont’d)

another Igbo Roman Catholic and Katsina did not burn. How can you start postulating that it is the doctrines of these religions that created religious intolerance? The closest ministers to Sir Ahmadu Bello were Christians.

Amb. Tanko Yusuf reported the case of a Christian Minister who didn’t go to Church because his wife had gone earlier with his Holy Bible. Sir Ahmadu Bello told him in which Igbo shop he would get a Holy Bible to buy that Sunday morning. The story claimed that Sir Ahmadu Bello paid for that Holy Bible. Though there are claims that  Sir Ahmadu Bello engaged in the propagation of his religion he did not result to killings

Nuzhat (2014)

Islam is a religion which provide complete code of conduct for every human being.”

This statement is not correct (Al-Baqarah [2:190-193]) quoted above allows the killing of human beings while the Holy Bible says “Thou shalt not kill” (Ex 20:13, KJV). (Al-Baqarah [2:216]) can be interpreted to allow looting of properties in times of religious crises. Very often crises spread because of the opportunities to loot innocent people’s properties whereas the Holy Bible says “Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is thy neighbour’s” (Ex 20:17, KJV).

Qur’an 2:244. And fight in the Way of Allah and know that Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower support fighting.

The Holy Bible says “The Lord shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace” (Ex 14:14, KJV).

The Qur’an allows divorce 2:2:224 And do not make [your oath by] Allah an excuse against being righteous and fearing Allah and making peace among people. … 2:225 Allah does not impose blame upon you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He imposes blame upon you for what your hearts have earned. … 2:227 And if they decide on divorce – then indeed, Allah is Hearing and Knowing. 2:228 Divorced women remain in waiting for three periods, …. 2:229 Divorce is twice. … 2:230 And if he has divorced her [for the third time], … Indeed Allah, of whatever you do, is Seeing.

The Holy Bible says “It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement: But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery” (Matt 5:31-32, KJV). Mark detailed Christ’s statement on the issue of divorce “… But from the beginning of the creation …. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder” (Mark 10:4-9, KJV).

On oath, the noble Qur’an says that it is only what proceeds out of the heart that is binding 2:224-225. When you are making an oath to me, how do I know that it proceeds from the heart?

The Holy Bible explicitly says “…I say unto you, Swear not at all; …let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil” (Matt 5:33-37, KJV).

On Marriage Fagoyinbo (2018) stated the stands of both the Holy Bible and the noble Qur’an. While Qur’an accepts marriage with Christians and Jews the Bible describes such as unequal yoking.

On Paradise, the noble Qur’an states in Surah 56. AI-Waqi’ah Part 27 as follows:

  1. So those on the Right Hand …. And (there will be) Hur (fair females) with wide, lovely eyes (as wives for the pious), 23. Like unto preserved pearls. 24. A reward for what they used to do.

The Holy Bible says “For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven” (Matt 22:30, KJV).

Nuzhat stated that “Muslims are related to each other as being Ummah, either they are in any part of the word. But like every religion extremists in Islam are destroying the beauty of Islamic religion.”

“And hold firmly to the rope of Allah all together …you were enemies and He brought your hearts together and you became, by His favor, brothers. …” (Qur’an 3:103).

This is the basic tying together of Islam but knowing what humanity is, will you blindly submit yourself or child to an unknown and unproven individual?

  1. My friend was dating a Muslim girl but her father refused marriage between them. He decided to marry her off to an Imam in Osogbo some 30 years ago. About two years ago the father was sick and the lady came to see him. She also visited my friend and saw his children; all were either at the university or had graduated. She really wept that day and getting home she confronted the father. “Baba, thank you very much for ruining my life for me. I have only one child because I don’t see my husband when I should. We are only marking turns objects of sexual satisfaction, not love. My child cannot have a good education. You are sick, I come to see you but I can’t raise money for drugs for you. I’d to borrow money to come here and I’m waiting patiently because I don’t have transport money back. I’m waiting till somebody will come to visit you and give you some money so that I can take out of it for my transport. Had I known I would’ve defied you!”
  2. This is more pathetic. The father gave her in marriage to a Chadian who came and was lodging in the mosque. The father’s reason was that he must have been staying in the mosque because he was faithful; he didn’t reason it out that the man was rationalising his resources by staying in the mosque. The Chadian packed her and their offspring to Chad after some time and began to misuse the woman and her children in favour of his Chadian wives and children; his Nigerian wife and her offspring were subordinate to his Chadian family! This woman suffered in silence for many years until she could no longer bear it and had to look for another Nigerian living there to assist her in escaping with her children at great risk to their lives.

There are similar problems in Christianity but God gives us the power of discernment. A friend and colleague told me he was to accommodate a new convert. On asking him of where they met, he said that the man was implicated in a robbery. I just simply told my friend that I would inform the Director so that in the case of any robbery he (my friend) brought in a robber to co-habit with us. He refrained from the plan.

Within six months he came to inform me that the said convert packed all valuables in the Pastor’s lodge and carted them away using the Church’s brand new 505 station wagon.

The Holy Bible says “For the word of God is … is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart” (Heb 4:12, KJV). A discerning mind demonstrates wisdom and insight that go beyond what is seen and heard. For example, God’s Word is “spiritually discerned.”  “But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God…” (1 Cor 2:14, KJV).

I searched the Qur’an but this is the closest passage that I got to discernment “O men! worship your … then be on guard against the fire of which men and stones are the fuel; it is prepared for the unbelievers. …” (Suratul Baqarah: 21-25).

Next: THE FUNDAMENTALS OF THE MAJOR RELIGIONS

REFERENCES

Anele, D (2012). The Fundamental Source of Religious Intolerance (1). Sunday Perspectives On August 26, 2012 https://www.vanguardngr.com/2012/08/the-fundamental-source-of-religious-intolerance-1/

Bolatito, LA (2013). Modernism and Secularization: Towards a Reconciliation of Religious Freedom and National Security in the Realization of Peace in Nigeria. Canadian Social Science. Vol. 9, No. 1, 2013, pp. 135-146.

Ekanem, BSA and EN Ekefre (20313). Education and Religious Intolerance in Nigeria: The Need for Essencism as a Philosophy. Journal of Educational and Social Research Vol. 3 (2) May 2013

Fagoyinbo, B (2018). Religion, Faith, Emotion and Inter-faith marriage. Accessed 01 Nov 2018.  http://motresource.com/2018/10/14/religion-faith-emotion-and-interfaith-marriage/

Gott, G (2015). Religious Fanaticism is Dangerous. https://futurism.media/religious-fanaticism-is-dangerous

Mou, D and SP Mou (2017). Religious Intolerance on Nigerian University Campuses. International Journal of Politics and Good Governance. Vol. VIII, No. 8.4 Quarter IV 2017

nairaproject.com (). General Introduction. Ch 1 in Religious Conflicts in Nigeria: Issues and Solutions. https://nairaproject.com/buy-project/

Njoku, DI and NC Njoku (2013).Appraisal Of Religious Intolerance In Nigeria. International Journal of Theology & Reformed Tradition Vol 5, 2013 Page 121

Nuzhat, F (2014). Religious Conflicts in Nigeria and Their Impacts on Social Life. Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences Vol.2, No.4, pp.15-19, June 2014 Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (www.ea-journals.org)

Salih, M (1997). Permissibility of eating meat slaughtered by Christians and Jews. Accessed 27 Oct 2018. https://islamqa.info/en/answers/103/permissibility-of-eating-meat-slaughtered-by-christians-and-jews