THE PLACE OF A CHRISTIAN QUEEN IN A NON-CHRISTIAN CULTURAL SETTING

Pictur showing the traditional induction of Prophetess Şilękunǫla Moronkę Naomi as the wife of Oba Ooni

by
Babatunde Fagoyinbo

INTRODUCTION

In the World of Traditional Religion

Ife, the Origin of Yoruba Culture

It fell on us to evangelise one elderly man one of those days in Teachers’ College. It was a sunny morning and the Baba was reclining on his easy chair under a strangler fig tree (ǫdan). The way we met hm made us believe that he was a well-to-do man. His house was moderate; a four-room, two-parlour, face-me-I-face you bungalow. It must have been built with sandcrete blocks. It has a balcony with well-designed handrest made of burnt clay bricks.

“Good morning, Baba.” We greeted, prostrating.

“Welcome, my children.” He responded and called on one of the children around to bring us chairs to sit on. We declined the chairs but he insisted. “You are from St Andrew’s, Abi?”

“Yes, Baba.”

“Some of you, school children, don’t prostrate to greet old babas like me. You only nod your heads. But you came in and greeted me as if I’m your father.”

“Baba, you are our father. We can even that believe you are our grandfather. You’re definitely older than our fathers.”

“What can I do for you, my children?”

“We bring good news to you, Baba.”

“Is the government sending me to Cuba?”

“Better news than that, Baba.”

“I know then, the Gospel!” He declared.

“Yes, Baba. The good news of salvation.”

“Jesus loves me! I know that He does. All my children are Christians. All of them.”

“Baba. Salvation is a personal matter. Your children’s faith cannot save you!”

“I’m an Ifa priest. I cannot change at this age. I’ve gone too far. I shall not disappoint my disciples.”

“Baba. Save yourself and save them too.”

“My children. Ifa is a belief in one God, Olodumare, Olodumare is the Creator of the heaven and the earth. Ęla is His grand Orişa, Ęla. Ęla had no earthly father. He was sent by Olodumare to correct our negative attitudes and reconcile us with Him. The people hated Ęla because he would not compromise their behaviour and conspired against him. He was slain. The life history of Ęla is identical to that of JEşus. We must have been part of the Jews. The Jews wrote their history but our own is oral history. And you know that in oral history there would be omissions and additions.

“Orunmila is the common name but His real name is Ela. He is the Father of wisdom the Witness to creation. When Olodumare created the universe, Orunmila was the only Orisa allowed to witness all of creation. Orunmila is the father of divination, our only guide through life. Orunmila is Ifa. Those who possess the wisdom of Ifa and have been consecrated are known as Babalawo. A Babalawo would be compared to a priest or a reverend.”

“But Baba, you believe in other gods.”

“Yes. They are His errand staff. You see the population of our land and how many countries there are. We approach Him through those other gods.”

“Baba, you are limiting God.”

“You believe that God uses angels. Don’t you?”

“Yes, Baba.”

“The problem with you children of today is that you see things only through your own angle. Don’t you see that you are also guilty of your accusation against people of traditional religions? You are limiting Him too.

“Since you know He is capable of doing all things by Himself He shouldn’t have angels. You see, these gods have their respective roles. Şango is in charge of thunder and lightning, Ǫsun takes care of Ǫşun River, Ǫya takes care of Ǫya River, Ogun is in charge of metals. He ordained Şǫnpǫna in charge of infectious diseases.”

“Baba. Our concern is your salvation.”

“Don’t worry about that. All my children are Christians. I raised no objection to their accepting JEşus. They have their lives to lead”

“Salvation is a personal matter, Baba!”

“I know. You think that God is wicked!. If I’m in the wrong, God knows. The fact that I raised no objection to their accepting JEşus is enough credit for me to His presence. If my Ifa worship is acceptable to Him, then I’ll have double honours.”

“Baba, please consider submission to Christ. Can we ask a question before we leave?”

“Even if your question will lead to others, I’m all ears.”

“Why do you worship Satan?”

“We worship Eşu, not Satan. Satan is Elenini, not Eşu. Elenini is even a coined name. The English language does not have a name for EŞU, just as the Yoruba language doesn’t have a name for Satan. EŞU is one of the Yoruba Orisa that was a great confidant of Orunmila. Eşu Odara is who travels between heaven and earth not only reporting our deeds but delivering our wishes, fears, prayers, offerings and sacrifices. Whoever made the error has done the worst for the Yoruba race. Just write down this oriki (Praise names). Please, my children, I’m not evangelising Orunmila to you. But please, don’t be ignorant of any religion around you

Eşu laalu
Ogiri oko
Onile OritaBakere ǫdada
Afęyinju legun lǫAyigbin !
Ǫba nilę Ketu
Egbe leyin ęlębǫ
Enini lęyin ęni-o-kǫrǫ-Odumare
Eşu ma şe mi
Ǫta mi ni ki o şe
Eşu, the honor of the city
The big and strong stone
Whose residence is road junctionBakere, the instigator
He who possesses eyes that are capable of chasing away bad forces
Ayigbin!
King in the city of Ketu
The support behind those who make sacrifice
The devil behind those who refuse God’s messageEşu, please, do not turn against me
It is my enemy you should turn against

In the Palace

In Yoruba traditional practice, an Oba is not a Christian, not a Muslim, not a Sango worshiper, not an Ogun worshiper, not….not….not. He belongs to all religions in his domain because he is expected to take part in every festival and has his own roles to play. However, within him he knows what faith he holds.

In this era of Christianity and its injunction, what should a Christian Oba do?

There are two possibilities, which are having accepted Christ before ascending the throne and ascending to the throne before accepting Christ.

Let’s look at the first two anointed kings of Israel. They have some things in common. They went through Judaic schools, were kings over the United Kingdom of Israel, they first started ruling over their respective clans and they were both anointed by Samuel. However, the thing that they did not have in common is crucial to kingship; trust

They were not chosen using the same criteria. Saul was given to them as a result of their rebellion against God. “…when Samuel was old… he made his sons judges …his sons walked not in his ways… took bribes, and perverted judgment. Then all the elders of Israel gathered themselves together, and came to Samuel unto Ramah, And said unto him, Behold, thou art old, and thy sons walk not in thy ways: now make us a king to judge us like all the nations’ (1 Sam 8:1-5). They asked for a king that would judge them like other nations and God gave them “Saul, a choice young man, and a goodly: and there was not among the children of Israel a goodlier person than he: from his shoulders and upward he was higher than any of the people” (1 Sam 9:2, KJV). That was the pattern of their kings among their neighbours. In the case of David God cared less of a man’s countenance “… the Lord said unto Samuel, Look not on his countenance, or on the height of his stature…ruddy, and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to. And the Lord said, Arise, anoint him: for this is he…” (1 Sam 16:7-12, KJV).

King Saul was anointed by the God he could not fully obey (1 Sam 15:3-9, 22) and did not trust (1 Sam 28:7) while David had absolute trust in the God of Israel (1 Sam 17:37-46) and would ask Him for direction (1 Sam 23:1-2).

Darius (Dan 5:31-6:3; Dan 9:1-2) and Cyrus 2 Chron 36:22-23 () did not know the God of Israel but they did His will and God counted it for righteousness with Darius trusting in the power of the almighty (Dan 6:27-28)

Olori Şilękunǫla Moronkę Naomi Ogunwusi

Call to Responsibility

Queen Mothers are the epitome of power. They are women who have reached one of the highest positions of power. In Yorubaland, Olori Şilękunǫla  has been highly esteemed. Who would ever have believed that one day she would become the mother of all Yoruba? But God works His purposes out.

The call she has is a call to responsibility:

  1. To move Yoruba race back to the original place of honor;
  2. To take Christ to all palaces across the whole of Nigeria and the entire coverage of Ife and Oyo Empires;
  • To wake up mothers to the responsibility of establishing families in Christ; and
  1. To promote the unity of the entire Yoruba race.

Moremi did it and the Lord, our God, will equip her to accomplish the responsibility He has entrusted to her.

MARRIAGES IN THE BIBLE

The first recorded marriage in the Bible which was detailed is that of Isaac and Rebekah except for that of Adam and Eve which was by direct extraction of Eve from Adam’s body

Isaac Weds Rebekah

“But thou shalt go unto my country, and to my kindred, and take a wife unto my son Isaac. …And he said, O Lord God of my master Abraham, I pray thee, send me good speed this day, and shew kindness unto my master Abraham…Behold, I stand here by the well of water; and the daughters of the men of the city come out to draw water… And let it comes to pass, that the damsel to whom I shall say, Let down thy pitcher, I pray thee, that I may drink; and she shall say, Drink, and I will give thy camels drink also: let the same be she that thou hast appointed for thy servant Isaac; and thereby shall I know that thou hast shewed kindness unto my master… And it came to pass, as the camels had done drinking, that the man took a golden earring of half a shekel weight, and two bracelets for her hands of ten shekels weight of gold… And he said, Blessed be the Lord God of my master Abraham, who hath not left destitute my master of his mercy and his truth: I being in the way, the Lord led me to the house of my master’s brethren… And the Lord hath blessed my master greatly; and he is become great: and he hath given him flocks, and herds, and silver, and gold, and menservants, and maidservants, and camels, and asses… And it came to pass, that, when Abraham’s servant heard their words, he worshipped the Lord, bowing himself to the earth. And the servant brought forth jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment, and gave them to Rebekah: he gave also to her brother and to her mother precious things. And they did eat and drink, he and the men that were with him, and tarried all night; and they rose up in the morning, and he said, Send me away unto my master” (Gen 24:4-54, KJV)

Jacob Weds Leah, Rachel, Zilpah and Bilhah

“And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and charged him, and said unto him, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan…And Jacob loved Rachel; and said, I will serve thee seven years for Rachel thy younger daughter. And Laban said, It is better that I give her to thee, than that I should give her to another man: abide with me. And Jacob served seven years for Rachel; and they seemed unto him but a few days, for the love he had to her… And it came to pass in the evening, that he took Leah his daughter, and brought her to him; and he went in unto her. And Laban gave unto his daughter Leah Zilpah his maid for an handmaid. And it came to pass, that in the morning, behold, it was Leah: and he said to Laban, What is this thou hast done unto me? did not I serve with thee for Rachel? wherefore then hast thou beguiled me? And Laban said, It must not be so done in our country, to give the younger before the firstborn. Fulfil her week, and we will give thee this also for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years. And Jacob did so, and fulfilled her week: and he gave him Rachel his daughter to wife also. And Laban gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah his handmaid to be her maid” (Gen 28:1-29:29, KJV).

Can you notice that Laban was instrumental in all the marriages? When parents desire that their children should marry into wealthy homes, don’t begrudge them. It has been like that for ages. Abraham stocked his servants to show that the wife was not coming into prosperity.

Ishmael Weds ‘an Egyptian’

“And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran: and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt” (Gen 21:21, KJV).

Samson Weds ‘a Philistine”

“And he came up, and told his father and his mother, and said, I have seen a woman in Timnath of the daughters of the Philistines: now therefore get her for me to wife. And he came up, and told his father and his mother, and said, I have seen a woman in Timnath of the daughters of the Philistines: now therefore get her for me to wife. Then his father and his mother said unto him, Is there never a woman among the daughters of thy brethren, or among all my people, that thou goest to take a wife of the uncircumcised Philistines? And Samson said unto his father, Get her for me; for she pleaseth me well. But his father and his mother knew not that it was of the Lord, that he sought an occasion against the Philistines: for at that time the Philistines had dominion over Israel…So his father went down unto the woman: and Samson made there a feast; for so used the young men to do” (Judg 14:2-10, KJV).

Boaz Weds Ruth

“When she saw that she was steadfastly minded to go with her, then she left speaking unto her…And Naomi had a kinsman of her husband’s, a mighty man of wealth, of the family of Elimelech; and his name was Boaz…My daughter, shall I not seek rest for thee, that it may be well with thee?…the man will not be in rest, until he have finished the thing this day…And the kinsman said, I cannot redeem it for myself, lest I mar mine own inheritance: redeem thou my right to thyself; for I cannot redeem it…And Boaz said unto the elders, and unto all the people, Ye are witnesses this day, that I have bought all that was Elimelech’s, and all that was Chilion’s and Mahlon’s, of the hand of Naomi. Moreover Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, have I purchased to be my wife, to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance, that the name of the dead be not cut off from among his brethren, and from the gate of his place: ye are witnesses this day…So Boaz took Ruth, and she was his wife: and when he went in unto her, the Lord gave her conception, and she bare a son…and they called his name Obed: he is the father of Jesse, the father of David” ( Ruth 1:1’ 4:17, KJV).

We can see connectivity and divine intervention in this matter.

Harvesting of Deeds

  1. Isaac reaped from his father’s righteousness. Even Eliezer, Abraham’s servant reaped from it
  2. Jacob’s deceitful nature was visited on him. There are more such visitations waiting for him ahead.
  • Samson did not keep to God’s injunction. He handled dead bodies, even of rotten dead animals and even ate from its product, took alcohol, married storage women, was fornicating, etc. God sill used him but he missed the benefits
  1. Ruth’s righteousness was repaid with absorption into the lineage of Jesus

QUEENS THAT BLESSED THEIR HOMES

Esther

Queen Vashti disobeyed the orders of drunken King Ahasuerus, her husband, and got divorced on the advice of the princes and for deterrence to women (Est 1:1-22). He sought a new queen, the most beautiful woman in the land. A young Jewish orphan, Esther, was chosen (Est 2:1-18).  She kept her Jewish identity secret under the instruction of her foster father, her cousin Mordecai (Est 2:19-20). Mordecai, a servant of the king, overheard an assassination plot and warned his master through Esther (Est 2:21-23). Haman, a descendant of Agag the king of the Amalekites, was promoted after the plotters were executed (Est 3:1)

Haman sought to kill not only Mordecai but all the Jews in the Persian Empire when he observed that Mordecai paid him no respect (Est 3:2-15). Mordecai informed Esther of the plot and together they fashioned a fasting prayer programme to avert the disaster (Est 4:1-5:14).

Ahasuerus remembered the source of the assassination attempt and sought to reward the informant. Haman recommended the award and was instructed to carry it out. It was a great humiliation for him to herald his arch enemy around the city of Shushan (Est 6:1-13).

Esther turned the tables on Mordecai through two banquets she gave, and Haman, being invited to the banquets committed grievous errors that led to his execution on the gallows that he prepared to hand Mordecai on (Est 6:14-7:10). Haman’s estates were given to Esther and his position given to Mordecai (Est 8:1-2)

King Ahasuerus mandated Esther to issue a decree that allowed the Jews to defend themselves against any attack in his name (Est 8:3-8)

Letters were sent throughout the kingdom repealing the decree and the Jewish people in Persia were saved.. There was great rejoicing, and an annual festival was celebrated to commemorate the courage of Esther and the deliverance of the Jews. This festival was called Purim Est 8:9-9:32). And “Mordecai the Jew was next unto king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted of the multitude of his brethren, seeking the wealth of his people, and speaking peace to all his seed” (Est 10:3, KJV).

Esther is described as beautiful (Est 2:7) and obedient (Est 2:10), and she appears to be pliant and cooperative. When she first learned of Haman’s plot and the threat to the Jews, her reaction was one of helplessness. She could not approach the king without being summoned and the king had not summoned her in thirty days, implying that she has fallen out of favour (Est 4:11) but in obedience to Mordecai’s persistent prodding, she resolved to do what she could to save her people,; staking her life “and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law: and if I perish, I perish” (Est 4:16, KJV). The pliant and obedient Esther had been transformed into a woman of action.

Abijah

“Hezekiah began to reign when he was five and twenty years old, and he reigned nine and twenty years in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name was Abijah, the daughter of Zechariah” (2 Chron 29:1, KJV). Hezekiah was born of an idolatrous father “Ahaz was twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem: but he did not that which was right in the sight of the Lord, like David his father: For he walked in the ways of the kings of Israel, and made also molten images for Baalim. Moreover he burnt incense in the valley of the son of Hinnom, and burnt his children in the fire, after the abominations of the heathen whom the Lord had cast out before the children of Israel” (2 Chron 28:1-3. KJV). From above passages, we will see that Abijah lived with wicked Ahaz for at least twenty-six years.

Lessons to Olori Şilękunǫla

Esther

When the king was sufficiently beguiled by her charms, she revealed her true purpose: the unmasking of Haman and his plot and her identity as a Jew and accused Haman of the plot to destroy her and her people. The volatile king sprang to the defence of the woman to whom he was indifferent to thirty-three days earlier; the power of prayer is demonstrated here.

Christian and Judaist scholars are troubled by Esther’s failure to live as a Jew: had sexual intercourse with and married a Gentile, lived in the Persian court and did not follow Jewish dietary laws. In addition, Esther has been taken to task by both female and male commentators for her apparent willingness to participate in Persian harem customs, and by Christian commentators for her evident bloodthirstiness in destroying Gentiles (Est 9:1–15).

I chose the Book of Esther to demonstrate to Christians (not only Olori Şilękunǫla but also males and females in a position that are subordinate) in a relationship with unbelievers in power that it is possible to achieve success in such positions without giving up one’s identity as a Christian. The Books of Ezra, Daniel and Nehemiah also demonstrated this.

Women are essentially powerless and marginalised members of society; notwithstanding the status of their culture, they cannot simply reach out and grasp power, as a man can; whatever power they can obtain is earned through the manipulation of the public holders of power. In this sense the exiled Jew could identify with the woman: he or she too was essentially powerless and marginalized, and power could be obtained only through one’s wits and talents. But, as the actions of Esther demonstrate, this can be done. By her faith, prayers, astutely using her beauty, charm, and political intelligence and by taking one strategised risk, Esther saved her people, brought about the downfall of their enemy, and elevated her kinsman to the highest position in the kingdom. Esther becomes the model for the mother of the Yorubas, Her Imperial Majesty Queen Evangelist Prophetess Olori Şilękunǫla Moronkę Naomi Ogunwusi.

“In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans” (Dan 9:1, KJV). Darius is believed to be the son born to Ahasuerus by Queen Esther and so shall the Lord give you sons and daughters who will function for the upholding of the glory of God in Yorubaland.

Abijah

Abijah was married for at least, 26 years to a very powerful man who lived his life as described in 2 Chronicles 28 as summarised below:

  • He completely rejected the Lord and worshipped idols of all kinds (v1-2, v22)
  • He burned his own sons as sacrifices to idols (v3)
  • He was a complete loser as a leader (v5)
  • He was humiliated (v9-15)
  • He instigated everybody around him to all kinds of sin and crime (v19)
  • He shut down the Temple and prohibited everybody to worship God (v24)
  • He had obvious demonic anger outbursts, destroyed anything that had to do with God and completely submitted himself to demonic practices. (v24-25)
  • When he died, he was buried with no due respect or no regret outside the city cemetery (v27)

“And he did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, according to all that David his father had done” (2 Chr 29:2). He reconciled the people with God “He in the first year of his reign, in the first month, opened the doors of the house of the Lord, and repaired them. And he brought in the priests and the Levites, and gathered them together into the east street, And said unto them, Hear me, ye Levites, sanctify now yourselves, and sanctify the house of the Lord God of your fathers, and carry forth the filthiness out of the holy place” (2 Chr 29:3-5, KJV). And appeased God for the people“Now it is in mine heart to make a covenant with the Lord God of Israel, that his fierce wrath may turn away from us” (2 Chr 29:10, KJV)

Our Olori Şilękunǫla “ be not now negligent: for the Lord hath chosen you to stand before him, to serve him, and that ye should minister unto him, and burn incense” (2 Chron 29:11, KJV).  As your name depicts, she is destined to restore the Yoruba race to honour and the Lord our God, by the power of the Holy Spirit will grant her that favour.

REQUIRED ACTIONS

As the Grand-Mother or Grand-Queen of Yoruba, the responsibility is enormous on Olori. Remember that Queen Esther “has not been called to come in unto the king these thirty days” (Est 4:11, KJV) implies that she had lost favour with king Ahasuerus. But with prayer and fasting, God granted her favour. God will grant our Grand Olori favour in the name of Jesus. Esther knew what to obey, what secrets to keep when to appear, what to ask for, etc. not of her wisdom but of God’s guidance.

Olori should remember that “Ǫpa t’a fi na iyale wa l’ori aja fuo iyawo” (Young, 2018) but we pray that that whip on the rafter will not touch her. The whip that was used for Vashti did not touch Esther because she laid her problems at the feet of her God; so will it be for Olori Şilękunǫla. However, she must know that while Oba Adeyeye Enitan Ogunwusi is the Baba of all Yoruba, she Olori Şilękunǫla is the custodian of his heart, his wife, his sister, his confidant and above all his mother. He is ever her last baby; irrespective of the number of births.

With her, God will reopen the door of honour to the Yoruba race> However she needs to:

Establish a regular meeting of all the Olori of all crowned Obas to be known as Council of Oloris;

Establish a League of QueenMothers which will be made up of mothers of proven characters, accomplishments and who would be known to have mentored younger women, irrespective of religion;

Establish a regular praying team that will focus on the restoration of the status of Yoruba in the nation, unity within the Yoruba race, understanding of our problems, restoration of productivity habits of the Yoruba race;

REFERENCES

Young  (2017). What Led to Olori Wuraola and Ooni of Ife’s Marriage Crash – Report. Accessed 26 Oct 2018. http://www.informationng.com/2017/08/led-olori-wuraola-ooni-ifes-marriage-crash-report.html

THE SOCIETY IS INSANE

Africans can survive without shelter throughout the year

by
Babatunde Fagoyinbo

Introduction

Ogoja Five

My first encounter with insane people was in the early 1950s. My mother had a shop along Jubilee Road; the road that links old Gbagi through Dugbe Market to Railway Station. The road is blessed with the presence of Bower Tower. I don’t know if the clock is still working. I do hope it is. This man was called Eegun l’ehin Oga (i.e. the chameleon’s back is all bones) or Eegun a di (tied up bones) ELO. I don’t know why he was so named because he was tall and muscular maybe my perception of him was child-based. But for his madness, he was dark skinned and handsome. There was another insane woman in his neighbourhood. I cannot really know whether the woman was beautiful or not, light or dark, short or tall.

I noticed ELO very much because his shed was about two stall distended from being directly opposite my mother’s shop. Both were positioned within a pole distance from each other. The two were always falling in and out of love, marrying and divorcing. ELO was very gentle except for about three to five days every moon-month; when he could be nasty and abusive. On two or three occasions, to my knowledge, he prevented hoodlums from stealing from my mother’s shop.

ELO went insane because he wanted to get rich quickly through money ritual. He usually made his confession about twice in the days of his ordeal every month “Sebi e so fun mi wipe ki nma sa ti mo ba ri won. Se e ko mo wipe nwon maa d’eru ba mi ni? Oju won da bi oju kiniun, iwo won da bi iwo efon, eekanna won da bi ti amotekun, bee ni ina njade l’enu won. E ko so fun mi bi nwon se maa ri. T’o ba je wipe e so fun mi ni n ba ti sa.” “Yes, I know that you warned me against being frightened and fleeing from them. Didn’t you know that they’ll frighten me? They looked like lions with horns like buffaloes and fangs like tigers yet breathing flames. You didn’t warn me how they would look like. If you did I wouldn’t have fled”.

On those days, he warned us to be content with what God gives. I was a child then

My second encounter was in the town where I finished my primary education. She was the wife of a community rich man. This was in late 1950 to mid-1960. I can remember vividly that she had two male children. I cannot be too certain that the girl I knew with her was her daughter. Her problem was like that of ELO. I think that immediately she became insane her family of origin took her for local psychiatric treatment and she remained there but in the moon-monthly cycle she would come to her husband’s house and make some trouble. After those days she would go back to her trade. She was making and selling alapa. There was nobody in that community who could match her sale. Her alapa was very tasty.

The day I had sympathy for most in my life was the day her first son flogged her with atorin. I cried my eyes to tiredness. A son whipping his mother! I couldn’t believe it. I went to him after, only to find him sobbing, too. He was about eight years older than me.

“Why did you have to whip her?” I demanded. Notwithstanding the difference in age, he respected me and related to as a brother.

“Baatunde, Baatunde, Baatunde!” He called, using the slur in the local dialect to pronounce Baatunde. “Will you be happy if your mother were in that situation?” The sobbing became more grave.

I started sobbing too. I was seeing my mother. Had I been in his situation, would I be able to survive? I empathised with him.

My elder sister said that the last time she saw the woman was about fifteen years ago and that she was normal.

“She even asked about you.” My sister said.

“About me! You are joking.” I responded.

“She asked about mum, you everybody up to our last born! (I won’t mention names).

The third encounter I had was at a fuelling station in Kaduna. It was during IBB-generated fuel shortage period. I queued up for fuel along Mando Road and this man surfaced and challenged me for driving his car which his father bought for him to cruise the town with. He demanded to know what gave me the boldness to pick that particular one among his fleet. He spoke fluent English; grammatically correct English. I sympathized with him. He was a young man; possibly about 42 years of age.

I know of several cases involving insane women and their children. One was in the Yakubu Gowon military era. She had a shed close to one of the tributaries of Ogunpa that crossed Salvation Army Road. Some women noticed that she was pregnant and the youth In the community confronted her. She declared that she had a husband and told them the days and time he used to come around. They tracked and got the man. He confirmed the relationship. He said that he’d been married for years without a child and was told by a diviner to look for a mad woman to sleep with. He tried this and it worked.

Asked by the youth about his plans, he said he would collect the child. The youth were not happy with that.

“What would be the fate of this child if its half-siblings start mocking him that it is a child of a lunatic?” They insisted that he should take care of the woman, as well.

That evening, he took the woman to the psychiatric hospital in Abeokuta. The youth organised with the man to assure them of continued care by taking two of them along with him anytime he was visiting the woman in Abeokuta. She delivered a set of male twins. The woman became normal.

The Ekotedo youth were made up of apprentice automobile craftsmen, apprentice tailors, clerical staff in ministries and some traders.

Another insane woman was dumped at that spot about ten months after. Questioned on where she came from, she was belligerent; accusing men of deceit. “You are all liars, deceivers. All you want is to sleep with me. Come now, if my baby will not push you away.”

She delivered four days after she was dumped there. Women in the neighbourhood noticed her rhythmic contraction that evening and continued monitoring her. They were there for her at delivery. The following morning health officials took her and the baby away.

Sometimes in the late 1980s, I was in Enugu for a programme. I came out of my hotel to pick a yellow taxi to the venue. Almost opposite KayCee Stores on Okpara Avenue was a lunatic shed.it must be about 7:30 am. I noticed a girl of about ten years entered the shed. She was in school uniform. I felt happy that the family of the lunatic woman was taking care of her. I believed that they had sent the girl to bring breakfast for her.

To my amazement, I heard the woman scolding the girl and accusing her of sluggishness. “You sluggish girl, if your teacher beats you for coming late to school, I’ll beat you again.” she declared. She muttered some words in Igbo which I didn’t understand. The girl rushed into the shed to pick her school materials. I believed she was living in that shed with her mother.

Insanity

Insanity is a range of both group and individual behaviours categorised by certain abnormal mental or behavioural patterns. It may manifest as violations of societal norms, sometimes, to the level of becoming a danger to themselves or others, however, not all acts showing indifference toward societal norms is acts of insanity. It is believed that the brain’s very structure and function are a product of the social environment (Lenroot and Giedd, 2008)

For many generations insanity has been tagged a spiritual/mental disorder. Most people believed that the victim had been possessed by some spirit or God. However, Hippocrates wrote ‘It appears to me to be nowise more divine than any other disease but has a natural cause’. Felix Platter and Robert Burton believed that it could be both spiritual and natural (BRAIN, 2016). Andrew Snape (1675–1742) is of the view that. ‘Distraction . . . divests the rational soul of all its noble and distinguishing endowments, and sinks unhappy man below the mute and senseless part of creation.’ Without reason, the appetites and passions will be released in their full fury. And the reason is, of course, the greatest benefit conferred on us all by civilisation. Without reason, we are no different from other animals (Frith, 2016).

Given that insanity reduced people to the level of beasts, it follows that they should be managed by the techniques developed for training animals. This means domination through the judicious combination of reward (kindness) and punishment (repression). Such treatment is largely confined to the poor and uneducated classes.

Pinel (BRAIN, 2016) believed that, if madness is related to ‘an organic lesion within the brain’, then ‘the insane are left to look upon their sickness as incurable’. The idea that brain disorders were incurable was overthrown with the advent of successful pharmacological treatments:

  1. Discovery of antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs in the 1950s. While they may not cure, these treatments certainly reduce the severity of mental symptoms whatever their cause (BRAIN, 2016).
  2. Brain disorders, such as schizophrenia, require physical treatments with drugs while mental disorders, such as phobias, require psychological treatments. Brain disorders are believed to might be more curable than mental disorders as the development of some pharmacological drug is possible (Banner, 2013; BRAIN, 2016).
  • New techniques for studying the brain, such as staining and brain imaging, have revealed clear abnormalities in many disorders (Marsh et al, 2008).
  1. When appropriately prescribed, antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs can give considerable benefits. On the other hand, these drugs undoubtedly have distressing side effects and have frequently been over-prescribed.

Of particular concern is the exploitation of insanity for financial gains by so-called healers who extorted the rich through the astrological bill, extorted foundations through diversion of funds to personal accounts and extorted the poor through the establishment of treatment centres that draw funds from the states (BRAIN, 2016). In developing countries, ritualists have been known to kidnap them for money rituals while power-seeking politicians have been caught either raping and/or luring the females for sex. Cases of their exploitation for other uses abound such as cutting off their dreadlocks, scrapping the hair on their private parts, exchanging or sealing their garments, etc.

Causes of Insanity

WebMD (2018) identified three classes of possible causes as biological, psychological and environmental.

Biological

  1. Some mental illnesses have been linked to abnormal functioning of nerve cell circuits or pathways that connect particular brain regions. Nerve cells within these brain circuits communicate through chemicals called neurotransmitters.
  2. Genetics (heredity) Mental illnesses sometimes run in families, suggesting that people who have a family member with a mental illness may be somewhat more likely to develop one themselves.
  • Infections: Certain infections have been linked to brain damage and the development of mental illness or the worsening of its symptoms.
  1. Brain defects or injury: Defects in or injury to certain areas of the brain has also been linked to some mental illnesses.
  2. Prenatal damage: Some evidence suggests that a disruption of early foetal brain development or trauma that occurs at the time of birth such as loss of oxygen to the brain may be a factor in the development of such conditions as autism spectrum disorder.
  3. Substance abuse: Long-term substance abuse, in particular, has been linked to anxiety, depression, and paranoia.
  • Other factors: Poor nutrition and exposure to toxins, such as lead, may play a role in the development of mental illnesses

Psychological Factors

Psychological factors that may contribute to mental illness include:

  1. Severe psychological trauma suffered as a child, such as emotional, physical, or sexual abuse
  2. An important early loss, such as the loss of a parent
  • Neglect
  1. Poor ability to relate to others

Environmental Factors

Certain stressors can trigger an illness in a person who is susceptible to mental illness. These stressors include:

  1. Loss of a loved one through death or divorce
  2. A dysfunctional family life
  • Feelings of inadequacy, low self-esteem, anxiety, anger, or loneliness
  1. Changing jobs or schools
  2. Social or cultural expectations.
  3. Substance abuse by the person or the person’s parents.

Affliction

A fourth class is affliction.

There was this friend who was a year ahead of me in Teachers’ College. We entered the university the same year through Concessional Entrance University. He enrolled for Food Science and Technology while I enrolled for Agricultural Engineering. We both made the Preliminary Year successfully. I noticed some slight withdrawal from me but I never bothered abbot it realising the Senior-junior relationship in practice in the Teachers’ College. I never discussed it with any of our colleagues who mainly were my former classmate and those ahead of him. If the others noticed, they would feel the same way as I felt.

We were very close. I used to visit him in his hometown and knew many members of his family. He used to discuss everything that happened to him with me.

I was shocked the day he asked me not to call him by name anymore but rather walk over to him and tap him if I had anything to discuss with him. That reinforced the Senior-junior relationship idea in my head. It didn’t bother me, though. I was more concerned about my studies; realising my weak background in science subjects.

About two weeks later, he asked me to have a stroll with him. We walked to a quiet place and sat on the ground in the shade of a tree.

“Tunde” he called. I noticed that tears were rolling down from his eyes. I didn’t make any comment on that. “ I got into trouble during the holidays” he paused, looked at me and burst into weeping.

“I’m hearing you,” I said.

“B got pregnant for me.”

“Has A known about it?” I asked.

“Yes”

I knew the two girls during the holidays. I had a vacation job in his hometown and I used to spend most of my free weekend days with him. I knew he wanted to marry A, and we were both aware that B had another suitor proposing to her. It was, however, obvious that she preferred my friend.

“Your matter is simple. Go ahead with marriage plans with B and let A be free to search for somebody.”

“It’s not that simple. I love A and you know it.”

“But…”

He didn’t allow me to finish my comment.

“I’m not asking for advice. I’m asking for help. I’ve been afflicted with inanity by B’s parents. They insisted that I should marry their daughter but I’m not interested. That’s why I asked you, people, not to call me by my name but tap me if you have anything to discuss with me. They call my name in the daytime, they call me in the nights.”

“They’re not the ones afflicting you. You are afflicting yourself. Go back to them and promise that you’ve agreed to marry her. She’s not bad! She’s pretty and has a good disposition. They’ll forgive you and release you from bondage.”

“I’ll rather prefer to die than marry B.”

“From what you’ve said, these people are not planning to kill you but make you insane. You want to roam the streets in rags?”

“I’ll not do that.”

“Come to think of it, whether you die or rn mental, A ‘ll marry somebody else.”

“It doesn’t matter.”

“Remember Mr O.”

Mr O was in his final year in Teachers’ College when he came his first year.

“Yes. I remember vividly. But this is different. I remember that Mr O died about November 1969 and the fiancé was married by Easter 1970 despite her performance at the graveside.”

He didn’t return to campus after the 1973 Easter break. Two weeks into resumption, I went to his hometown to look for him. I couldn’t get any information from any member of his family; even his mother was mute. She showed no evidence of bereavement or any mishap to the young man. I left, frustrated.

As I got out of the house, an elderly man called out to me. I greeted him and moved towards him. I knew him. I had greeted him on a few occasions when I came to visit my friend and had had occasion to shake hands with him once.

After exchanging pleasantries he asked me into his sitting room upstairs, offered me a bottle of cold soft drink, Coca-Cola specifically.

“I’ve been expecting you. I know you’ll come to look for your friend.” He began. “I know that you’ll not get any information from the family so I decided to monitor you when you came and stationed myself outside so that I’ll see you on departure.”

I was shocked.

He realised I was shocked. He read it in me.

“You are surprised I said that eh? I’m sorry young man. I shouldn’t be poke-nosing into other people’s affairs. But this is a pathetic case. The young man had no friend in the family; even his mother. It’s getting late if you have to travel back today. I won’t delay you. The young man died three weeks ago. He committed suicide. He stood by a bridge and jumped into the road when a fast-moving truck was approaching. His body didn’t twitch. I believe he didn’t suffer the pain.”

I couldn’t control the sob. It swelled right from my heart.

Symptoms of Insanity

Signs and symptoms of insanity can vary, depending on the disorder, circumstances and other factors (mayoclinic.org, 2018). Symptoms of insanity vary considerably, can be numerous and affect emotions, thoughts and behaviours.

Examples of signs and symptoms include:

  1. Feeling sad or down
  2. Confused thinking or reduced ability to concentrate
  • Excessive fears or worries, or extreme feelings of guilt
  1. Extreme mood changes of highs and lows
  2. Withdrawal from friends and activities
  3. Significant tiredness, low energy or problems sleeping
  • Detachment from reality (delusions), paranoia or hallucinations
  • Inability to cope with daily problems or stress
  1. Trouble understanding and relating to situations and to people
  2. Alcohol or drug abuse
  3. Major changes in eating habits
  • Changes in sex drive
  • Excessive anger, hostility or violence
  • Suicidal thinking
  1. Sometimes symptoms of a mental health disorder appear as physical problems, such as stomach pain, back pain, headache, or other unexplained aches and pains

Treatment of Insanity

I lay no competence in discussing the treatment of insanity, however, there are instances of cure cited above; albeit through conventional psychiatric hospitals.

The Ogoja Five

Progress Oberiko (2018) wrote “I have seen them trekking long distances. I have also met them in the market making inquiries about where they could get a particular item to buy.

“They are inseparable.  They are always walking together. But the intriguing part is their communication.

“I’ve heard the man instructing one of his children who was walking sluggishly behind him as they trekked down the road; ‘Hey Dorcas, will you hurry up, C’mon girl, meet up with the pace’”. And I marveled,

Who are Sick?

In Yorubaland, the Oba s the father of all and he belongs to every religion. Be it Christianity, Islam or idol worship, he is expected to grace the occasions. In the Church, the Pastor is the father of every member of the congregation of the Parish, irrespective of his age relative to the ages of the members while his wife is the mother to all. I believe it is the same in the mosque. In reality, the paternity of a roaming lunatic is a function of his location at a particular time. If he is on a federal road he is the child of the President, on a state road he is the child of the Executive Governor and if on a local government road he becomes the child of the local government chairman

If a lunatic enters the palace in Yorubaland nobody dares chase him out, rather he is fed and taken care of. He is provided a place of rest and possibly changes his clothes for him; he is never forced to comply. It portends prosperity to the kingdom and general, a potent herbs man is invited for his healthcare.

In light of the above, the sanity of the following are called to question

  • The President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • The Honourable Minister of Health
  • The Executive Governor of Cross River State
  • The Cross River State representative of the Honourable Minister of Health
  • The Director of the Federal Medical Centre
  • The CRS commissioner for Health
  • the Ogoja Local Government Chairman

Meanwhile, we need to say Kudo to our little daughter who is presently the sanest person in Ogoja.

Recommendations

In order to address the issue properly and integrate the family into the socio-economic development programme of the nation:

  1. The children should be adopted by the State Government.
  2. The parents should be put in a psychiatric hospital for treatment; not separating the couple
  • The families into which the parents were born should be identified and involved in the rehabilitation programme without entrusting any funds into their care; and
  1. Our little daughter, Progress Oberika, deserves an award: possibly retrained to be a caregiver in a welfare scheme for the rehabilitation of the disadvantaged persons

Let’s Look at the Sick!

The followings are really sick and need care. However, they are still at the stage of deciding if they need care or not

About to wed

This couple, their parents, whoever joined them together, the chief Bridesmaid, the Best Man and other members of the bridal train need psychiatric examination. Immediately Adam and Eve realised that they were naked, they sought for coverings.

Will this young man allow his wife to dress to her place of work thus? If he would will her place of work consider it ethical?

 

insanity in the House of God

The Pastor and members of this congregation need not just psychiatric treatment but also deliverance from demonic forces.

 

 

Can a Christian Marry a Muslim

In the light of (Judges 14:1-7; 16:1-28; and 2 Cor 6:14) every Christian that answers Yes needs psychiatric treatment for insanity while every Muslim that answers No should be examined in the light of (Qur’an 2:221; and 5:5) for they do not believe in their Holy Bible and Qur’an respectively.

 

 

 

 

What on earth is responsible for this? Drug or alcohol intoxication?

training for sodomy

IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: NIGERIA AS CASE STUDY

by
Babatunde Fagoyinbo

INTRODUCTION

Population

Population can be described as the whole number of people living in the world, a region, country, city, or area. I am limiting the description to the application in human sociology. There is practically no reason for a complex definition of population.

Population growth

 

Population growth refers to change in the size of a population, which can be either positive or negative, over time; depending on the balance of births and deaths and alongside immigration and emigration. Population growth is measured in both absolute and relative terms. Absolute growth is the difference in numbers between populations over time; for example, in 1950 Africa’s population was 228,670,019 and in 2010 it was 1,049,446,344 (worldpopulationreview.com, 2018), a growth of 820,776,325. Relative growth is usually expressed as a rate or a percentage; for example, in 2010 the rate of Africa’s population growth was 2.6% implying that for every 1,000 people in the world, 26 more are being added per year. This has taken care of deaths, migration and emigration.

Factors affecting population growth

Table 1: Africa’s Population Growth Pattern
Trigers of Population Growth

Also important is the determined and consistent effort of governance, in Africa, to put the population in check through a vigorous enlightenment of the population, compulsory education with the parents contributing substantially to its cost and enlightenment through religiousorganisations and traditional rulers.Using the figure (Figure 1) obtained from www.economicshelp.org Pettinger (2017) discussed the triggers of population growth as economic development, education, quality of children, welfare payments/state pensions, social and cultural factors, availability of family planning, female labour market participation, death rates, immigration levels and historical factors/war. A detailed discussion of these factors, as affects Africa and its development efforts will be on a subsequent page. Table 2 shows the relative population growth by regions

Regions in the world by population (2018)

The Malthusian Trap and the Demographic Transition

Malthus’ was a strong voice against unchecked population growth in the late 18th and the early 19th centuries. His attention focused on population growth and food supply in England with special consideration to existing arable land and the level of technology available. He was of the view that by nature human food increases in a slow arithmetical ratio while man himself increases in a quick geometrical ratio unless he is constrained by want and vice. The increase in numbers is necessarily limited by the means of subsistence. Population invariably increases when the means of subsistence increase, unless prevented by powerful and obvious checks (Tushar, 2018).

Economic Development

Economy

There is a need to clearly understand what economy, development and economic development mean. Economy is defined as a social domain that emphasises the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use, and management of resources (James et al, 2015). The economy is made up of the interactions among governance, the population and human and material resources and facilitated by such agents as individuals, businesses, organisations, or governments.

A given economy is the result of a set of processes that involves its governance, culture, values, education, technological evolution, history, social organisation, political structure and legal systems, as may be affected by its geography, natural resource endowment, and ecology. These factors give context, content, and set the conditions and parameters in which an economy functions.

There are three major types of economy:

  1. A market-based economy in which goods and services are produced and exchanged according to demand and supply between economic agents; either by barter or a medium of exchange with a credit or debit value acceptable within the network, such as a unit of currency;
  2. A command-based economy in which political agents directly control what is produced and how it is sold and distributed.
  • A green economy that is low-carbon, resource efficient, and socially inclusive in efforts to reduce and simultaneously enhance the global per capita use of natural resources and prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. It generates growth and improvements in people’s lives in ways consistent with sustainable development.

Development

Development is the process that leads to positive change through the addition of physical, economic, environmental, social and demographic components.  Development adds value to the object. For a community, development results in a rise in the level and quality of life of the population, the creation or expansion of local income and employment opportunities with a determined and pragmatic effort to the sustainability of the available resources of the environment.

Economic Development

Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people. The term has been used frequently by economists, politicians, and others in the 20th and 21st centuries. The concept, however, has been in existence in the West for centuries. Economic development has a direct relationship with the environment and environmental issues.

It is also essential, at this stage, to distinguish between economic development and economic growth. Economic development takes into consideration the totality of the economy as defined above. Economic growth is the increase in the market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time measured conventionally as the per cent rate of increase in real gross domestic product (real GDP) and adjusted to eliminate the distorting effect of inflation on the price of goods produced. Increase may result from the amounts of inputs available for use (extensive growth) or more efficient use of inputs (intensive growth).

In economic growth, it is immaterial whether or not value is added. Increase in raw agricultural produce export, increase in the amount of raw iron ore extracted, etc. constitute economic growth.

Ingredients of economic development

Once again, creation blessing: “Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth” (Genesis 1: 28, KJV), implants in man the capacity to use all the resources of the earth for his wellbeing. Biblical earth is not limited to the planet earth but every other creation that man’s technology can access.

For an economy to develop there are such ingredients requirements as:

  1. Human resources. What proportion of the population is literate? What proportion is skilled? How much training has been provided? What is their health situation? What is their orientation? Table 3 shows the dearth of factors that steer the populace towards productive economy in Africa as compared with some of their erstwhile colonial masters. Human resources development (HRD) views humans as resources to be trained, educated, and developed within the system of an organisation for the purpose of enhancing the productivity of the organisation through the expertise of its workforce Hogendorn (1996) stated that the premise of human capital theory is that investments made in educating the workforce and developing their skills (among other services such as providing them with nourishment and maintaining their health) would pay dividends for a country in its effort to develop economic viability and contribute to an increase in output per each unit of input;
  2. Material resources: availability and access. Pont-à-Mousson imports the bulk of the raw materials required for its steel industries. Natural resources availability in a given region makes it easier for people to acquire and use them. However, its impact on economic development is a function of the energy of mind; the attitude towards material things; willingness to save and invest productively; the freedom and flexibility of institutions; and/or robust political structure anchored on good leadership;
  • Good governance: Knack (1995) determines five main indicators characterising good governance: (i) corruption; (ii) legal framework; (iii) public administration efficiency; (iv) lack of contract execution by the government; and (v) expropriation. Knack aggregates above indices in one aggregated index, so named ‘property right index’, which is evaluated from 0 (lowest) to 50 (highest).
  1. Political stability that ensures human rights, justice and peace. Early action to address the root causes of crises, such as social inequality or low access to justice and security, is key to preventing brewing tensions from escalating into full-blown conflict which may eventually thwart every effort geared towards economic development;
  2. Development of a viable, sustained, and sustainable economic development strategy which can bring economic peace and tranquillity;
  3. Establishment and emplacement of economic infrastructure and institutions: Infrastructure contributes to economic development both by increasing productivity and by providing amenities that enhance the quality of life. Basic infrastructures that impact on economic development include but not limited to: power, energy and water supplies; transportation; healthcare delivery; safety and security of lives and properties. The services generated by infrastructure investment lead to growth in the production in two ways: (i) infrastructure services are intermediate inputs to production, and any reduction in these input costs raises the profitability of production, permitting higher levels of output, income, and/or employment; and (ii) infrastructure services raise the productivity of other factors. The lack of infrastructure or its inadequate availability a given location may repel flows of additional resources and outflow of investment. The poor state of energy production has forced such manufacturers as Dunlop, Michelin, etc. out of the country and forced most other manufacturers to close down (Manuaka, 2012);
  • Development of administrative capacities that can implement coherent policies to eliminate any unequal economic power relationship between the small economic and political elite and the average citizen;
  • Foreign trade: International trade is a powerful enabler of economic development. Evidence exists that increased participation in international trade can spur economic growth, which itself is a necessary condition for broader development outcomes to be realised through connecting global markets to developing-country producers and consumers (UNCTAD, 2014). International trade provides a critical channel for the flow of finance, technology and services needed to further improve productive capacity in agriculture, industry and These are needed in turn for structural transformation of economies. However, there must be policies that are complementary to the enabling power of trade with its impacts on economic and social development”.

Impact of population growth on economic development

Natural Resources Availability

Population places a demand on infrastructures, however, it is also known that population can contribute tremendously to the provision of infrastructures.

Natural resources are spaciously but not evenly distributed and they are limited either in quantity or in the rate of availability and varies in time. They are of two types: the exhaustible and the inexhaustible. Fossil fuels and solid minerals are exhaustible while winds and solar radiation are inexhaustible. Water may be classified as inexhaustible but it can be diverted and its interaction with the soil coupled with geological processes within the locality can create diversions. Each of these resources has its advantages and limitations; while the rate of extraction will determine the period over which fossil fuel and minerals will be available, the rate of capture of wind, solar and hydro energy will be determined by the available flow rate.

Infrastructural development is not limited by the availability of input materials alone but also on fiscal and human resources. Fiscal resources are required to put in place facilities that would be needed for harnessing and distributing the resources while human resources are required to strategically plan the harnessing, production, distribution and management of the output.

Effect of Population on Resources

Malthus (1766–1834) warned against uncontrolled procreation, however, he was not anticipating such developments as advancements in technology that now help with manufacturing and agricultural production; recycling and sustainable industrial production practices. There are definitely more dangers than anticipated by Malthus in such areas as access to basic resources like clean drinking water, transportation and housing to mention a few.

Population and economic development

It is a general belief that additional people provide a workforce necessary to generate goods and services. However, this applies where the raw materials, human resources and other factors like infrastructures for the production are available. It must also be recognised that the quality of the human resource addition to the workforce is significant in its input into the production system.

Africa can be rated based on its ranking in the factors affecting economic development in relation to the rest of the world:

  1. Human resources. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest illiteracy rate of 35.7% among other regions given as Arab States19.3%; East Asia and the Pacific 4.3%; Europe and Central Asia 1.9%; Latin America and the Caribbean 6.8%; South Asia 29.7%. Nigeria’s illiteracy rate of 49% (Table 3) is much higher than Africa’s average. There are 21 countries within the assessed countries with 50% and above of their populations below the poverty line. African countries take a lion share of 16 countries with Nigeria ranking 5th thus making it difficult to raise capital for investment (indexmundi, 2018).
  2. Material resources: Fagoyinbo (2018) shows the availability of fossil fuels and other minerals of the African region alongside other regions. Africa ranks poor in relation to other regions in most of the resources
  • Good governance: The level of corruption is a good measure of the level of integrity of the governance. Of the 24 countries that score below 25 in CPI, Somalia had the least score with 10 marks and 13 of the countries are located in Africa. No African country was able to enter into the list of 17 countries that scored 75 and higher
  1. Political stability: In the state fragility index 13 countries score higher than 100 with South Sudan heading the list. 8 African countries showed up on this inglorious list (Wikipedia, 2018)
  2. Development of a viable, sustained, and sustainable economic development strategy: The logistic Performance Index (LPI) is an interactive benchmarking tool created to help countries identify the challenges and opportunities they face in their performance on trade logistics and what they can do to improve their performance. 13 African countries appear in the list of the 20 lowest ranked countries while there is none among the list of the 20 highest ranked.
  3. Establishment and emplacement of economic infrastructure and institutions: Healthcare delivery is an important infrastructure along with road network, water supply for all of domestic, industrial and agriculture. Among the lowest 20 countries in health delivery status, Africa takes a lion share of 18 countries with no representation among the highest ranked 20 countries (wikipedia.org, 2018a). With road network density measured in km per 1000km2, no African country is listed among the 20 countries having the densest while it registers 13 out of the 20 least networked countries (worldstat.info, 2018). Compared with Iceland that ranked 1st with 56,720KWh/annum per capita production of electricity, South Africa leads the African countries with a total production of 235,000×106 KWh per annum, giving an annual per capita production of 4,858KWh. South Africa ranks 60th in per capita production of electricity. Of the 10 least producing countries, Africa takes a lion share of 8 countries, with Togo ranking 218th out of 219 countries at a per capita production of 14KWh/annum
  • Development of administrative capacities: All 22 countries of the world with HDI below 0.5 are African countries; including Nigeria.
  • Foreign trade: WTO (2016) states “Africa’s exports experienced a significant 30 per cent decline in dollar terms in 2015. Accounting for about 40 per cent of the region’s exports, Sub-Saharan oil-exporting countries, such as Equatorial Guinea and Congo, were significantly affected by the 60 per cent decline in oil prices. Nigeria saw a decline of almost 50 per cent in its export revenues in dollar terms. This weakness was also due to a variety of other factors, including slow growth in North Africa and domestic and political turmoil. Growth in South Africa and Morocco was relatively better than the average for the region, with a less marked decline in the value of their exports.” It is to be recognised that most exports from African countries are raw materials. The dependence of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) on oil exports and imports – particularly Nigeria, which accounted for 50 per cent of ECOWAS exports – resulted in its share of world exports falling to 0.5 per cent in 2015 from 0.9 per cent in 2012.

Conclusion

This article has not conclusively placed population factor in a position of retardation to economic development. However, it can be recognised that other factors that contribute to economic development can be depressed by population increase. Population growth is not really a depressing factor to economic development but it is certain that population should be allowed to grow in proportion to economic growth and development.

The impacts of high birth and death rates are increasing population size and density, rapid population growth and uncontrolled rural-urban migration which in turn heighten the problems of unemployment, underemployment, persistent poverty, urban slums, crime and political unrest. These all lead to increasing dependency burden on infrastructures requirements for economic development.

GDP and Literacy Statuses of African Countries

Next: We shall look at the infrastructures that the colonialists left behind and how Africa has built on them

Note:

This article is presented with the view of raising concern for the development of the “developing countries”, not to condemn any government but to create awareness and fashion out concrete paths towards development. While African nations will be the focus, examples will be drawn from other regions. It is hoped that peoples from other nations will contribute positively to the programme of fashioning out the path of development.

There is a Yoruba adage that says “Eepa npa ara ę o ni oun npa’ja, t’aja ba ku n’ibo ni eepa yio wa?” meaning “The dog worm is carrying out its extermination; believing that it is killing the dog, where will be its habitation at the demise of the dog?”

This applies to African (and their likes) leaders who are busy carting away the resources of Africa into foreign lands to keep for their children. The Lord who created us said “So shall my word ‘If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep. (Ex 22:1,KJV)’ be that goeth forth out of my mouth: it shall not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it” (Isa 55:11, KJV). To those who assume that the grace has covered their iniquities “And Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the Lord; Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have taken any thing from any man by false accusation, I restore him fourfold” (Luke 19:8, KJV) to which Jesus replied “This day is salvation come to this house, forsomuch as he also is a son of Abraham. For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost” (Luke 19:9-10, KJV).

Kindly make positive contributions that will lead to development within your country and that will benefit the generality of the populace; not emotional contribution, if any view contradicts your own personal view. There is no one that is 100% right.

 

References

Fagoyinbo, JB (2018). Giants and Dwarfs of Africa. Accessed 04 Oct 2018. http://motresource.com/2018/09/30/giants-and-dwarfs-of-africa/

helpsavenature.com (2018). How Do Natural Resources Affect Economic Development? Accessed 03 Oct 2018. https://helpsavenature.com/how-do-natural-resources-affect-economic-development

Hogendorn, JS (1996). Economic development (3rd ed.). HarperCollins College Publishers. New York.

indexmundi.com  (2018). Country Comparison- Population below poverty line. Accessed 02 Oct 2018. (%) https://www.indexmundi.com/g/r.aspx?v=69

James, P; L Magee; A Scerr and M Stege (2015). Urban Sustainability in Theory and Practice: Circles of sustainability. Routledge, London, New York.

Malthusian Theory of Population: Explained with its Criticism

Manuaka, T. (2012). Government Policy Forced Us Out of Manufacturing – Mohammed Yunusa, MD, Dunlop Nigeria. Accessed 22 May 2012. Wednesday, 29 February 2012 http://www.tellng.com/…GbPVT8

Pettinger, T. (2017). Factors that affect population size and growth. Accessed 01 Oct 2018. https://www.economicshelp.org/blog/469/development/factors-effect-population-size-and-growth/

statista.com (2018). The illiteracy rate among all adults (over 15-year-olds) from 2005 to 2015* , by world region. Accessed 04 Oct 2018. https://www.statista.com/statistics/262886/illiteracy-rates-by-world-regions/

transparency.org  (2018). Corruption perceptions index 2016. https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2016?gclid=CjwKCAjwio3dBRAqEiwAHWsNVa6uSMGnvd_iYgew7oy1gL1uSISpJybEdnNCfpi0bRkai7zXOUE4_hoCDIkQAvD_BwE

Tushar, S (2018). Malthusian Theory of Population: Explained with its Criticism. Accessed 03 )ct 2018. http://www.economicsdiscussion.net/articles/malthusian-theory-of-population-explained-with-its-criticism/1521

UNCTAD (2014). The role of international trade in the post-2015 development agenda Note by the UNCTAD secretariat. Item 4 of the provisional agenda, Trade and Development Board Trade and Development Commission Sixth session Geneva, 5–9 May 2014 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Wikipedia.org (2018).  List of countries by Fragile States Index. Accesed 04 Oct 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Fragile_States_Index.

wikipedia.org (2018a). World Health Organization’s Ranking of the World’s Health Systems. Accessed 02 Oct 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Health_Organization_ranking_of_health_systems_in_2000

World Bank (2018). LPI Global Rankings 2018. Accessed01 Oct 2018. https://lpi.worldbank.org/international/global

worldpopulationreview.com (2018). Africa Population 2018. Accessed 01 Oct 2018. http://worldpopulationreview.com/continents/africa-population/

worldstat.info (2018). List of countries by Density of road network. Accessed 04 Oct 2018. http://en.worldstat.info/World/List_of_countries_by_Density_of_road_network

WTO (2016). Trading patterns: Global and regional perspectives. Ch 5 in World Trade Statistical Review 2016

ENCOUNTER WITH ROYALTY: “PRIME PRINCE”

Pre-colonial empires and kingdoms in West Africa

by
Babatunde Fagoyinbo

Story! Story!! Once Upon a Time

A little story to herald this work in order to show what we were prior to western civilisation. This man would be my age. The son of the Ǫba of my hometown. I got disgusted by his haughty walk-style. I didn’t grow up in the community so there was no interaction between us. Sometimes in 1968, I saw him in the vicinity of the Post Office of the Divisional He

Governance in Pre-Colonial West Africa

adquarter; with his haughty walk. I believed that it would do him a lot of good if I talked sense into his head.

 

I called him by his father’s name adding the title Prince. He stopped and turned as if was neckless. He was about one pole away from me and across the road. He couldn’t figure the person that called him. He turned back and continued his movement. I called twice more; the same way as the first call. He reacted the same way. The fourth time that I called, I signified to him that I was the one calling him. I knew that within him, he was furious after sizing me up. But he didn’t know me and thus could not conclusively decide what to do.

I stood my ground; implying that he should come over to me. He considered it for about three minutes and then complied.

I didn’t give him any breathing space when he got to me.

“You are… ?” I began.

“Prince……..”, he took it off me.

I marked that.

“What brought you to the Divisional Headquarter?” I asked.

“Just felt like strolling.”

“That’s about seven and a half miles!”

“I didn’t tell you I walked the distance” he retorted.

“You said you felt like strolling”.

He knew I couldn’t have been a military man; considering my age. Should he snob me and leave? He looked at me with disdain but reconsidered the situation. He wasn’t sure what would be the outcome of our meeting. But he was at a loss. Armed Forces personnel had stormed the headquarter twice and carried young men off for conscription into the force. On the main road, middle of the town, he was sure that I was confident of myself. I’d made up my mind that I would deal with him if he misbehaved.

“Did you know me before?” He asked.

“How would I have known your name if I didn’t know you before?” I demanded.

He noticed another of his errors.

He raised his left hand to rest it on my shoulder but I pushed the hand away.

“You don’t do that to somebody you don’t know very well!”. that instilled some fear into him but he summoned up the courage.

“How did you know me?”

“I ‘ll tell you at the appropriate time” I declared. “By the way, do you have a problem with your vertebral column?”

“Why do you ask?”

“I want to know and I need to know”

I could notice some fear but he tried to mask it.

“No problems with my vertebral column”.

“What of your neck?”

“None.” He wanted to add the word “Sir” but the “prince” in him stalled him. I was enjoying the game but he was uncomfortable.

“Why then do you walk as if you have kyphosis?”

“What is kyphosis?”

“When you get home, walk in the front of a mirror then you’ll see how those who have kyphosis walk.”

“But that doesn’t answer my question.”

“I know. I don’t have to. I give it to you as an assignment. Most likely you don’t have the disease but you inflicted it on yourself psychologically.”

“You are insulting me!”

“I’ll just start now. If you move an inch I’ll deal ruthlessly with you.” I  stated with some force and paused a little; to let it sink.

It actually sank deep into him. I could see some sweat balls building up from the head and the neck area.

“Have you rolled a drum before? Empty one?”

“Me? No”

“Of course, you.”

“What of one filled with water?”

He offered no response. I knew that he was terribly angry with me and could’ve struck me but for the fear of not knowing who I was. I walked him to a nearby kiosk and bought two bottles of Coca-Cola. He asked for permission to change his own bottle to Sprite. I saw that I was gradually getting a result; for him to ask for permission. I then suggested that we sat under a strangler fig tree (ǫdan) with widespread shade. Fortunately, there was a long bench and no occupants.

In those days Nigerians were hardworking. You scarcely would find any civil servant leaving his duty without permission, and with valid reasons. Then, civil servants had duties, not offices. Things were working and people were dutiful. I took permission from my Headmaster to go to the Headquarters and I was to see the Divisional Officer for Education to endorse my University of London General Certificate of Education (GCE) application form. I’d been to his office and learned he was out and wouldn’t be back for about three hours. I seized the opportunity to do a few things in the town.

I had all my documents in one plastic folder which my Headmaster had pleaded I should give him but which I promised that I would not give out until I had finished everything that had to do with the GCE documentation. I hope I would still get another one to buy during the holidays when I would travel to Ibadan. I’d got the folder at the Kingsway Stores.

He tried to bring up light topics through which he could assess me but I ignored them; otherwise, I might not achieve my aim.

“You are lucky this encounter is not in…( hometown).” I began. “I ’d have been more ruthless with you. I’d have done what would bring us to fall foul of the law and got us arrested and I’d have tipped the police to keep you behind the counter until Kabiyesi comes to bail you out. I’d have told Kabiyesi  everything so he won’t have responded to the police alert until late in the evening.”

“Come off it. Kabiyersi would leave me in police custody! Not on his life.”

“If I ask him to allow you to sleep the night there, he will oblige me.”

“Who are you?” he demanded.

“It’s not for you to ask.”

“Does Kabiyesi know you?”

“No.”

”What then gives you the confidence to stop me on the road for this interrogation?”

I knew that I was dragging it too long. So I used this opportunity to drum a good sermon into his ears.

“……. (Prince). I’ve seen you twice in ….(hometown) twice with this your kyphosis walk and wondered how you got it. I’ve read of it in books but never seen anybody with a pronounced kyphosis like yours. My cousin told me that you are a prince. I asked him if that’s how princes and princesses walk in our hometown. He told me that you are the first son and the only one that walks like that”

“Who’s your cousin? He asked.

“What has that got to do with our discussion here?” I snapped.

He made as if to leave but I warned him that he dared not walk away on me. Otherwise, I’d be forced to take an action that would be more severe if it were our hometown.

“…….(Prince).” I continued. “What I want to discuss with you is for your own good and I’ll want you to listen attentively. In ….(our hometown) there are three ruling houses. If your father transits today, you cannot be the Ǫba. There’s no way the other ruling houses will not have their candidates. The battle will be between the other two ruling houses. If you contest, you’ll only lose your money. Secondly, you failed your West African School Leaving Certificate Examination. Your father is well educated for his time. There’s no town that will install an illiterate as Ǫba. I know that some of your brothers will be educated and one or two of them will be interested even if yours is the only ruling house. …… (Prince). I’ll advise you to drop your princely pride and go back to school.

“Didn’t anybody tell you that you’d disfigured your posture by this arrogant walk? You’ve been living in the past. The pre-World War II years! That you are the Ǫba’s son is immaterial. You’ll soon become irrelevant; after your father’s transition. You’ve been out of school for two years and it didn’t occur to you that you should resit your WAEC!.”

I showed him my documents and that I was applying to sit for the GCE examinations so that I could qualify for university admission. In those days Teachers’ Grade II Certificate was not considered as a qualifying level of education for university admission.

He was very appreciative. He escorted me to DEO’s office and we parted from there. His walk thenceforth became normal.

I discussed the incidence with my cousin when I went to     (hometown) two weeks later. He’d not met him but had heard comments about the change in him. He’d become humble and scarce. He was no longer man-about-town.

Why the Story?

Let me link you up to the theme I really want to bring out here. It was in Part I at the university. What they call 200 Level now. Our General Studies (African History and Culture) lecturer declared that colonisation destroyed the fabric of civilisation in Africa. I refused to agree with him. He threatened that if it comes out in exams and I countered him I would fail the examination.

Truly, the question came in the sessional examination. I didn’t think twice. I tackled the question to my belief: Colonisation did Africa much good. I articulated my reasons. To my amazement, I had an A in that course.

When we resumed the following session, I went to his office to inquire why I had an A. He replied that he couldn’t fault my points. He also was the son of a peasant and would never have got to where he was had African never been colonised. He told me he never looked at it in the light in which I looked at the issue.

If you are Yoruba can you remember the lives of Başǫrun Gaa and Ęfunşętan Aniwura? Do you know what it is to be installed as Chief Abǫbaku?

Neonaticide

Do you know that but for Christianity which came with colonialism, we would not have had the likes of The Right Rev (Col rtd) TE Ogbonyomi (rtd)? Somehow, maybe you too would not have existed except if your line is royal. It’s possible that royalty tussle would have eliminated your direct ancestors.

There are still vestiges of the horrible primitive tradition of neonaticide across the length and breadth of Africa. The Nation (2018) reported that the Gbajingala clan of Bassa Kuomo, Kulo, Gawu, Sabo, Guabe and Chibiri communities in Kuje Area Council still practice infanticice. Others are Gomani, Tekpese, Gurugi, Fuka, Lapa and Dogonruwa communities in Kwali Area Council, as well as Kaida and Kutara in Buari Area Council.

Twins, triplets, quadruplets and quintuplets are considered as evil children and are killed,  Also, such neonates and infants as those whose mothers die during or shortly after their birth are considered to possess dark powers that killed their mothers are culturally sentenced to death. Infants who are born with certain physical disabilities like cleft lips, deformed hands and legs, Down syndrome (possession of an additional genetic material which alters the course of development and causes such characteristics as low muscle tone, small stature, an upward slant to the eyes, and a single deep crease across the centre of the palm).

Any infant that grows an upper tooth first is considered unnecessary evil and it is also done away with. Orji (2018) further reported that in some of these communities the mothers of such babies are tagged as unclean for giving births to ‘forbidden beings’. Collison (2018) reported cases of intra-sex neonaticide in South Africa.

In Ethiopia, the Kara tribe carries out neonaticide on mingi birth (a child whose parents are not married. In the traditional Kara belief system this means she is cursed, unclean, full of sin, bringing malevolent spirits and bad luck to her family, village and tribe.). even in the case of traditionally married couples, permission must be sought from family elders before additional child. Otherwise, such a child is considered as mingi (Grant, 2012).

Healthcare delivery

An Anglican Communion priest had a small farm on his landlord’s farmland and adjoining his (landlord’s) farm. On a Saturday, he was to leave for the farm at about the same time as his landlord and he, thus, offered the landlord’s son a ride on his bicycle. Along the way, they fell down and the child had some bruises that bled. The landlord caught up with them, made some incantations and the bleeding stopped, the bruises also healed up instantly; leaving no scars.

Back home in the evening, the priest went to the landlord imploring him to teach him the technology. The landlord refused and specifically told him that he would teach only one of his sons; and that would be the one he loved most. He did not survive his son’s primary school years. The knowledge died with him.

The attitude remains with us till date.

Ritual Murders

Ritual killings cut across the whole of Africa (IHEU, 2010; IRBC, 2012) due to the fact that many people still believe that the use of charms and the performance of ritual sacrifice can fortify them spiritually, enhance their fortunes in business. Earn them victory in elections or protect them from harm, disease, poverty, accident, death or destruction.

Pre-colonial slavery in Africa

Enslavement in Africa resulted from war captives, as a form of collateral for loans or to take care of default in loan payback.  The captive is actually the ęru while the collateral is iwǫfa. While the iwǫfa has the opportunity to be free after payment of the loan, the slave can only be set free at the will of his master or find a way of escape. Very often slaves get integrated into the families. Matured slaves are married for by their masters but the offspring remain the property of the master as well. A lot of them have been integrated into the families among the Yoruba.

Ęru, in Africa enslavement, was usually on a small scale. Such slaves are well treated. We cannot ignore acts of wickedness on the part of some slave masters which, generally, is condemned by the community. The Yoruba has an adage that says “ǫna l’o jin, ęru ni baba” (his birthplace may be far, the slave was born of a father). Beautiful female slaves were, sometimes loved by young men in the family and sometimes permission sought to marry them. Women married into the family generally were not in favour of such marriages as the slave girl had been elevated to their level. The punishment usually meted out to such slaves was a restriction to the eating of some unpalatable foods in the first week following delivery. Such slaves, after knowing that the diet was assigned to them as a result of punishment usually turned it into a forced-practice through the proclamation of a cure (eewǫ) that for every delivery such diets should also be administered, otherwise some unpleasant consequences (to the child and/or its mother) would result.

Conclusion

Many writers have accused colonialism of stripping Africa’s people of the dignity of building their nations on their own indigenous values, institutions, and heritage. This write up has not totally condemned the African culture. The reader should understand that we are trying in this programme to fashion out our path to rapid economic development.

There was a time when Nigeria wanted to create a situation that would halt the education pace of the south while accelerating that of the north so that they can be at par. It led to the creation of the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board. Nigeria learned to its chagrin that it was a fruitless exercise. The northern states later observed that the individual state government had to establish programmes that would improve the educational pattern as it deemed fit.

There were three separate missions from Europe to Africa: the trade mission; the expedition missions which eventually led to occupation and gradually disintegrated to colonisation and governance; and evangelisation. South Africa is one country where occupation did not disintegrate into colonisation and governance. The expedition and trade missions worked hand in hand but the evangelisation mission depended only on sponsorship from concerned Christians in their home countries and brought education along with the gospel.

There is also the claim that modern African state is the product of Europe, not Africa. It should be recognised that Europe states are also the products of amalgamation and disintegrations. There is no nation that is completely homogenous in ethnicity.

Modern African state is actually the product of degeneration resulting from our own selfish knowledge-hiding nature that makes us keep knowledge hidden in our skulls; not documented for widespread use.

Next: We would look at the Impact of Population Growth on the Economic Development of Developing Countries: Nigeria as Case Study

 

Note:

This article is presented with the view of raising concern for the development of the “developing countries”, not to condemn any government but to create awareness and fashion out concrete paths towards development. While African nations will be the focus, examples will be drawn from other regions. It is hoped that peoples from other nations will contribute positively to the programme of fashioning out the path of development.

There is a Yoruba adage that says “Eepa npa ara ę o ni oun npa’ja, t’aja ba ku n’ibo ni eepa yio wa?” meaning “The dog worm is carrying out its extermination; believing that it is killing the dog, where will be its habitation at the demise of the dog?”

This applies to African (and their likes) leaders who are busy carting away the resources of Africa into foreign lands to keep for their children. The Lord who created us said “So shall my word ‘If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep. (Ex 22:1,KJV)’ be that goeth forth out of my mouth: it shall not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it” (Isa 55:11, KJV). To those who assume that the grace has covered their iniquities “And Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the Lord; Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have taken anything from any man by false accusation, I restore him fourfold” (Luke 19:8, KJV) to which Jesus replied “This day is salvation come to this house, forsomuch as he also is a son of Abraham. For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost” (Luke 19:9-10, KJV).

Kindly make positive contributions that will lead to development within your country and that will benefit the generality of the populace; not emotional contribution, if any view contradicts your own personal view. There is no one that is 100% right.

 

References

Collison, C (2018). Intersex babies killed at birth because ‘they’re bad omens’ posted on 24 Jan 2018 Accessed 10 Oct 2018. https://mg.co.za/article/2018-01-24-00-intersex-babies-killed-at-birth-because-theyre-bad-omens.

Egede, D (2018). DEAD ON ARRIVAL: Inside Abuja communities where twins are still being killed at birth. Posted January 21, 2018. Accessed 09 Oct 2018. http://thenationonlineng.net/dead-arrival-inside-abuja-communities-twins-still-killed-birth/

Grant, R (2012). Saving the condemned children of Ethiopia Richard 7:00AM BST 14 Apr 2012. Accessed 10 Oct 2018. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/ethiopia/9189136/Saving-the-condemned-children-of-Ethiopia.html

IHEU (2010). Ritual killing and human sacrifice in Africa. Intrnationl Humanist and Ethical Union. Accessed 10 Oct 2018. https://iheu.org/ritual-killing-and-human-sacrifice-africa/

IRBC (2012). Nigeria: Prevalence of ritual murder and human sacrifice; police and state response (2009-2012), 20 November 2012, NGA104218.E, Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada Accessed 10 October 2018 http://www.refworld.org/docid/50c84a6d2.html

Orji , S (2018) ‘They ensure each twin baby dies’: the secret killings in central Nigeria. Posted on Fri 19 Jan 2018 Accessed 10 Oct 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/working-in-development/2018/jan/19/twin-baby-dies-secret-killings-nigeria-remote-communities

SR (2018). Exposed: Abuja Village where Newborn Twins are Hanged to Death ‘because They are Evil’ MAY 22, 2018. Accessed 10 Oct 2018. http://saharareporters.com/2018/05/22/exposed-abuja-village-where-newborn-twins-are-hanged-death-because-they-are-evil%e2%80%99

RELIGION, FAITH, EMOTION AND INTERFAITH MARRIAGE

Interfaith Marriage

By
Babatunde Fagoyinbo

Introduction

Qantara.de – Dialogue with the Islamic

Ike Omar Sanda Nwachukwu was born September 1, 1940, to an Igbo father and a Fulani mother of Katsina. One of his cousins (would be about 5 years younger than Ike) happened to be close to me. He said his own mother was Ike’s mother’s cousin and his father Ike’s father’s cousin. He claimed that his father knew his mother through Ike’s mother. The cousin claimed that Ike’s mother is of the royal family in Katsina. Knowing the royalty in Katsina, these could not have been accidental marriages and to borrow the language of the Kara tribe in Ethiopia, the children could not have been mingi children.

It amazes me is that in the 1940s, when our literacy rate was lower than 20% Christians and Muslim could marry without any misgivings (even in the royal family in Katsina) but now that our literacy rate has gone up to about 50% we raise dust even on Facebook page about Christian-Muslim inter-marriage. Some of the pages include:

  1. Dawud AlBritaani on Wed 10 Oct “…why I consider it impermissible to marry a non Muslimin the West even though the Qur’an gives a general permission to …
  2. The Gospel Herald 15 AugustA Muslim … sentenced to death … shot and killed his son-in-law because … his daughter had disgraced the family by marrying a Christian man.
  3. Francisco Jimenez 16 September at 05:15Her mother raised her as a Christian, even though the father was Muslim. Married a Christian. Ordered to recant her faith or die.
  4. Islamic court permits pregnant woman to give birth before she is hanged Sudanese court says that Meriam Yehya Ibrahim who faces a death sentence for apostasy can have her baby
  5. Christian News Network 20 AugustA Muslim man … sentenced to death …engaging in two “honor killings” … his daughter … converting to Christianity and marrying a Christian.
  6. Muslim Immigrant Sentenced Over ‘Honor Killing’ of Christian Who MarriedHis Converted Daughter
  7. The Christian Post 22 September at 23:05Pakistan: Christian Girl Thrown Off Roof for Refusing to Marry Muslim, Convert to Islam
  8. Sharique Sharoshared a link to the group: Friends who like Mufti Ismail Menk.29 September at 12:28 A muslim man never marry a christian girl now a days
  9. COM Muslim man shouldn’t marry christianwoman nowadays #HUDATV
  10. Abdulwahab Ibrahim Kehinde‎ toThe World of Islam 3 October at 19:31 Is it good for muslim marry to christian
  11. com Breaking News 4 October 2017· … the perfect match for her based on the prayers they have done. 😍💞 Do you think there is any big deal in her marrying a Christian?
  12. My father said I would regret it if I marry a Christian – Muslimlady cries out after being threatened by her father for wanting to marry a Christian.
  13. Roberts Emmanuel‎ toIni Edo GossipMill 18 June Can a Christian marry a Moslem
  14. H Corede Adam‎ toI AM MUSLIM 14 September at 11:23 Pls, can Muslim marry a Christian…
  15. Itz Rhosheed Harkhintaryhorwas thinking about a lot of things with Oluwatobiloba Aribaba and 24 others. 24 September at 10:55can a muslim married a Christian,or …
  16. Joshua Lordrick Okoyeshared Taofeek HoluwaPelumi Soliu‘s post. 25 August Can a christian marry a Muslim?
  17. Taofeek HoluwaPelumi Soliuis with Olamide Adebisola and 3 others. 20 March
  18. Can a christian marry a Muslim?
  19. Friendly Atheist 15 AugustAli Mahwood-Awad Irsan was convicted of killing two people to punish his daughter for leaving home and marrying a Christian.
  20. PATHEOS.COM Muslim Extremist Who Committed Two “Honor Killings” Gets Death Penalty He won’t hurt anyone ever again.
  21. Winnie Thuku-Craig 2 October at 06:52Interfaith Marriages- Faith is a very personal matter and is of little significance when it comes to human relations. Two individuals belonging to entirely different faith systems can be an ideal couple. Faith matters little in the modern world and humans are judged by their attitudes and behaviour and not what they believe in!

Above are some of the posts that I got on my fb page within August and now (11102018). I shall neither comment on the posts nor edit them but examine what the scriptures say.

Religion, Faith and Emotion

Religion: Religion is a cultural system of designated behaviours and practices, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organisations that relate humanity to the supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. The practice of Christianity and of Islam is a religion.

Faith: Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. Faith goes beyond trust and beyond belief.

You have a friend who you trusted very much and he invites you to a function. When you get there you discover all the seats carry name tags. You search out your seat and seat down. I’m sure you will not put the seat to structural test before sitting. That is belief. However, you are about waking up and you hear a voice that says “My son, take up your Bible and proceed to Sambisa forest, ask for Abdulwaheed Issah and ask him to follow you back to Kaduna.” You’ll need faith to respond positively to that.

The Bible allows you to test the faith. God was not angry with Gideon’s requests of confirmation that the messages received were from Him (Judg 6:17-18; 21-22; 36-40). Your faith must take into consideration the fact that God will do what would bring glory to His name. Shadrach, Meshak and Abednego were sure of God’s capability to deliver them from the burning fiery furnace but at His own will; not theirs “Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, answered and said to the king, O Nebuchadnezzar, we are not careful to answer thee in this matter. If it be so, our God whom we serve is able to deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and he will deliver us out of thine hand, O king. But if not, be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up” (Dan 3:16-18, KJV).

Emotion: Emotion is any conscious experience described by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure. It is a complex psychological state that involves three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioural or expressive response. Emotion is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation. Those acting primarily on their emotions may seem as if they are not thinking, but mental processes are still essential, particularly in the interpretation of events.

Religious Practice

Both Christianity and Islam grew out of Judaism. It is true that Isaac and Ishmael were both from the loins of Abraham. So were the children of Keturah who were blessed with gifts but dismissed from the land of Canaan which God promised him in Isaac. Isaac remained in the faith of ONE GOD but Ishmael went into idolatry; his mother’s religion.

Christianity

Christianity grew out of Judaism still upholding the commandments of God. Christ said, “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill” (Matt 5:17, KJV). However, man’s infusions were removed “…For the hardness of your heart he wrote you this precept” (Mark 10:5, KJV).

Christ was born as a Judaist and every right, custom and sacrifice that needed to be carried out were observed, however, His mission was to reform the minds of the people and direct them aright to the path of salvation.

The Jews were awaiting His coming as their savior. The salvation they wanted was to deliver them from Rome, conquer Rome and appoint them as overlords so that they could revenge on Rome. Christ’s mission was liberation from the pangs of satanic forces. Their hopes were dashed. As far as they were concerned He was not like David that liberated from the Philistines; why should they accept this weakling who wanted them to continue paying taxes unto Caesar? They are still expecting their ‘Savior’ who would take over the administration of the United Nations Organisation, merge the world into one country and appoint them as clan leaders.

Islam

Prophet Mohammed had a pagan background. His grandfather was a chief man of Banu Hasim of Quraish and the guardian of Kabah but Mohammad grew up to believe he should not worship man-made god. It is claimed that Khadijah, daughter of Khuwaylid bin Asad introduced Mohammad to a Christian cleric who introduced him (Mohammad) to the gospel (muslimhope.com  (2008)). In his trade visits to Jewish land, he interacted with Judaists, with the idea of ONE GOD. He studied Judaism with all the infusion of their hearts and adapted it into Mohammedanism. Jews were astute tradesmen, so it suited him to relate with them. They would transact their businesses and relax with the religious practices of Judaism. He learned the story of Abraham, Isaac and Ishmael. The respective views of Christians and Muslims over Isaac and Ishmael are outside the scope of this article.

Inter-faith Marriage

Christianity

That a person bears Mary, Martha, Matthew or Moses does not make him or her a Christian. Christianity requires that you study the word and live by the word. Just this week a fellow declared at our House Fellowship that less than ten per cent of attendees listen to sermons. To confirm this view you may ask worshippers immediately after the close of service what the sermon was and you’ll hear “O, it was a powerful sermon, the preacher actually exposed the topic. He was eloquent. The Holy Spirit used him to deliver the message..” They may not even remember the topic. Majority carry their Bibles to Church on Sundays only. Many do not know how to access any of the books in the Bible. Many do not know which books the stories of Jesus, Abraham Moses, etc. are in the Bible

It’s immaterial if they attend such Pentecostal Churches as Living Faith, Redeemed, Greenlight, Dayspring, HighMountain, lowValley Churches. They are worse than those that attend the Orthodox Churches in accessing the Scripture books. They can speak in tongues and teeth. Their pastors fall people down in prayers. I am yet to come across a passage in the scriptures where Jesus, Peter, Paul, etc. made people fall in prayers

The Jews were given a set of commandments to distinguish them from the neighbours they would have by the time they would arrive at the Promised Land. God gave Noah to eat everything but the blood of animals (Gen 9:1-4) while there were prohibitions to the Jews (Ex 22:31; Lev 11; Lev 17:13-14). As to marriage “Neither shalt thou make marriages with them; thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his son, nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy son. For they will turn away thy son from following me, that they may serve other gods: so will the anger of the Lord be kindled against you, and destroy thee suddenly” (Deut 7:3-4, KJV) succinctly states why the children of Israel should not contract marriages with unbelievers for their offspring. Other passages referring to this include but not limited to Ex 34:16; 1 Cor 7:39; 2 Cor 6:14.

Abraham arranged for Isaac to marry from his own relation (Gen 24:3-4), notwithstanding the distance and “Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and charged him, and said unto him, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan” (Gen 28:1, KJV). We do not have records of Jacob marrying for his children but for Joseph who married the daughter of an Egyptian priest. He was isolated from his people and God knows how to take care of such situations (Rom 8:26).

Esau was a dissident. His marriage to Hittite women was “a grief of mind unto Isaac and to Rebekah” Gen 26:35, KJV. See also 28:9). But the consequence was that he had no portion in the blessing of Abraham. Other dissidents include Samson (Judg 14:1-7; 16:1-28).

Equally yoked

Even though Paul was a controversial figure, he shed some light in “Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? “(2 Cor 6:14. KJV). Yoking requires that the bullocks should be equally matched, otherwise the work will be retarded, the stronger one overloaded and the weaker one strained to death.

Love can develop between a Christian and a Muslim but the issue of faith should be straightened out before marriage. The Muslim must convert as the Christian is barred from marrying a Muslim; either way, male or female.

This short story will lighten this matter. I have a couple as god-children. Both were newly converted. I noticed a strained relationship between them and it was heading for divorce.  They were just about seven years in marriage.

“What’s the problem?” I asked my god-daughter.

“He smokes cigarettes and keeps late nights.”

“When you were courting, what time was he leaving your hostel?” My god-daughter was a student during their courtship.

“About 3 am, even sometimes around 4 am.” She replied.

“Did you notice he was smoking?”

“Yes.”

“What did you do about it?”

“I thought he would change” her voice dropped. She was sobbing.

My verdict was that she had no right to leave the husband. She should be ready to bear the burden of praying for him to drop the habits, otherwise, she must live with them. For new converts, it was not easy but glory to the Almighty God they are still together and their third and last child is about finishing in the university.

Islam

Muslims have the same problems as Christians. Less than 5% of them understand the religion they practice; even the clerics. Majority of those that attended Islamic schools can recite the Qur’an without a single hitch but are ignorant of the contents. Mohammed had two Christian wives, namely: Ramla bint Abi Sufyan and Maria al-Qibtiyya. Muslimhope.com (2008) quoted “Aisha says that Khadija took Mohammed to a Christian convert who used to read the Gospels in Arabic” from Bukhari vol.4 book 55 ch.17 no.605 p.395.

Qur’an (2:221) and Qur’an (5:5) emphatically grant permission to Muslims to marry Christians. However, a true Christian cannot be accessed because he/she would stick to the Bible passages stated above.

What it means is that a Muslim can propose to a Christian if, and only if, he/she is ready to convert to the Christian faith.

Interfaith Marriage

Interfaith marriage is a marriage between spouses professing different religions and in this case, Christian and Muslim. In an interfaith marriage, each partner adheres to their own religion; this excludes a marriage of a Christian to a Muslim who has converted to Christianity and vice versa.

Christianity not only frowns against but prohibits interfaith marriage. It is known as unequal yoking. Islam, on the other hand, accepts interfaith marriages with “people of the book” who incidentally are either Christian or Judaist. Christianity and Judaism prohibit interfaith marriages for the preservation of spiritual purity.

References

muslimhope.com  (2008). Why Did Mohammed Get So Many Wives? Accessed 12 Oct 2018. http://muslimhope.com/WhyDidMohammedGetSoManyWives.htm

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COLONISATION AND THE FATE OF AFRICAN COUNTRIES: NIGERIA AS CASE STUDY

By

Babatunde Fagoyinbo
moteginf@yahoo.com

INTRODUCTION

Colonisation

This write up will look at the issues of colonisation with particular emphasis on how it has affected, is affecting and is likely to impact development in Africa as a whole and Nigeria in particular.

It is a journey towards economic development and welfare of mankind. A journey that will assist us to bring ourselves into the plan of creation; manifest the fullness of God’s blessing at creation: “Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth” (Gen 1:28, KJV).

The purpose of this long journey is to map out the path towards effective and purposeful nation-building beyond emotion, ethnicity, religion and partisan politics. Obasanjo (of Nigeria) demonstrated the solution to the last three of these ills in his first tenure (1999-2003) as civilian president when his cabinet cut across all political parties, religion and ethnicity but could not divorce himself from emotion. We would rate him high but, notwithstanding, emotion affected his administration and lowered his score on the success chart if it were quantified.

This journey of nation-building will be long and needs your participation irrespective of your nationality, residency or religion. The journey is likely to be tortuous but I believe that if we devoid ourselves of unnecessary emotional attachments we shall all benefit and manifest the output of God’s blessing at creation.

What is nation building?

The United Nations Organisation (UN) views nation-building as the process of establishing civic order and governmental functions in countries that are emerging from a period of war or other types of upheaval (Pan, 2005). Can we strictly apply this definition to the situation in Africa? Are we going to view the period of colonisation as the period of upheaval? Should we consider such countries as South Africa, Zimbabwe, South Sudan etc. as the only countries that are building up their nations?

What happens to such countries as Nigeria that was in clans, ethnic groups and empires but was forcefully re-grouped, amalgamated and colonised for governance?

When we consider the essential ingredients of nation-building as enumerated by the UNO thus:

  1. Sufficient financial resources;
  2. International political will;
  • Time;
  1. Security: guaranteeing citizens a safe environment;
  2. Political reform: building a civil society, developing strong local and provincial governments, and ensuring freedom of the press and other civil liberties;
  3. Economic reconstruction: restoring economic infrastructure by establishing lines of credit for business, restarting industry, and creating jobs, especially in the agricultural sector, which accounts for most of developing countries’ gross domestic product; and
  • Strengthening legal institutions: ensuring a functional and independent judiciary

A good consideration of the UN’s definition shows that there is no nation-building going on in Africa. Can we thus truly say that there is no nation-building going on in Africa?

Let us view nation-building as a multidimensional concept involving the active participation of the entirety of the population  in various walks of life and involving the dedication and hard work of its citizen, result-oriented planning on the part of the Government towards harnessing the potential of its human and material resources, reducing the social and economic disparity that exists in the society and creating an enabling environment, wherein individuals can live freely and attain their best in life. Keeping these in mind, we shall be able to assess the status of the environment in which we are in terms of nation-building.

It is to be noted that the ingredients enumerated by the UN are essential for the healthy building up of a nation.

An Examination of God’s Blessing at Creation

A critical examination of the blessing will break it into its components. The blessing equipped us with the rational, judicious and sustainable utilisation of the resource abundantly made available to mankind. The components are: be fruitful; multiply; replenish the earth; subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.

Be fruitful

Fagoyinbo (2016) stated that fruitfulness implies bringing forth useful results and end products that benefit mankind. King David revealed in his Psalms the significance of and the requirements for bearing fruit “The righteous shall flourish …” (Ps 92:12-14) while Jesus Christ stated the impact of “Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit”  (John 15:8) which can be accomplished by “He that abideth in me, and I in him…” (John 15:5).

Multiply

Multiplication is necessary because of the two other components of the blessing without which it would have been difficult; since man’s spirit is contained in his shell that has limited movement (Fagoyinbo, 2016). To His faithful, He says “That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore…” (Gen 22:17).

Replenish the earth

Fagoyinbo (2016a) highlighted the resources that God made available to mankind as

  1. Terrestrial resources made up of the sun, the moon and the stars;
  2. Atmospheric resources made up of the clouds, the wind and microorganisms;
  3. Land resources made up of vegetation, the beasts, the birds, insects and microorganisms;
  1. The earth resources made up of minerals, soil, moisture and microorganisms; and
  2. Water resources made up of aquatic animals and microorganisms

Fagoyinbo further stated that the components in item (i) are without man’s physical reach and thus cannot be polluted by him. To date, there’s been no deterioration recorded of these terrestrial resources. God wanted the same for the resources contained in items (ii) to (v). They are within man’s reach and man needs to replenish them, in quantity and quality, for the continued existence of life; thus, the component of the blessing known as “replenish the earth”.

Subdue it

For the seven years or more, when Adam tended the earth in loneliness, there was no reason to subdue the earth in the sense of “bring into bondage” (Fagoyinbo, 2016b). After the formation of man, not creation, and his acclimatisation with his domain, “the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it” (Gen 2:15); this was his second placement in the Garden, the first placement being without responsibilities.

Fagoyinbo further stated that to be able to effectively rule over the earth there would be the need to effectively cover the terrain and access the interior. Thus, man has to devise means of accessing the resources within the earth’s crust, explore the depths of the oceans, access the top of mountains as well as move over the face of the earth. Developing the means of doing these is what God referred to as subdue.

Have dominion…

God’s concept of dominion was and still is over the other creatures; not man (Fagoyinbo, 2016).

That God is against man domination of man is contained in His response to the Children of Israel ’s demand for a king to which God replied “…Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee: for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me … yet protest solemnly unto them, and shew them the manner of the king … He will take your sons, and appoint them for himself… your daughters to be confectionaries, … He will take the tenth of your sheep: and ye shall be his servants. And ye shall cry out in that day because of your king which ye shall have chosen you; and the Lord will not hear you in that day” (1 Sam 8:7-18).

Notwithstanding man’s wickedness and rebellion, God is still compassionate: “And God saw that the wickedness of man was great …But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord” (Gen 6:5, KJV). God’s compassion manifests greatly in “And the Lord smelled a sweet savour; and … said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground …” (Gen 8:21-22, KJV).

Resources Availability

Natural Resources

Very often Africans project Africa as highly resource-endowed. In coal reserves, Africa lags behind Asia, Europe and North America. In natural gas reserves, Asia and Europe are better endowed while Africa is the least endowed continent in oil reserves (Table 1).

There is no African country within the 18 countries having the highest gold holdings (Table 2), South Africa is the only African country that entered into the 10 highest iron ore producing countries in the world (Table 3) while DR Congo and Zambia ranked 6th and 7th respectively among the 10 highest copper producers (Table 4). South Africa leads the world in manganese, platinum and tied with Australia in titanium production while it ranks second in palladium production (Table 5). No other African country is able to rank highly in solid minerals, fossil and nuclear fuel resources and gemstones

Table 1: World Fuel Reserves by Region

Table 2:Top 20 according to the World Gold Council’s latest rankings

(as of September 2018) (Wikipedia, 2018)

Table 3;:List of countries by iron ore production

Table 4: List of countries by 2017 copper production (Wikipedia, 2018b)

Table 5: Lists of countries by mineral production (Wikipedia-, 2018c)

Agriculture

An examination of global arable land (Table 6) shows a steady increase across all the regions; with the exception of Industrial and Transition countries where decline began respectively in 1997/81 and 1997/99. The increases are likely to have resulted from: development of high-yield crops; increased irrigation schemes; Increase in the use of fertilizers; Improved market access, regulations, and governance; better use of information technology; adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops; land ownership reform with productivity and inclusiveness in mind; and step up of integration into Agricultural Value Chains.

Figure 1: While there is a need for modernisation for small-scale farming activities, large farm development needs to be encouraged

With the highest area of arable uncultivated land in the world (Douglas, 2015) but having most farms at less than 2 hectares, attainment of food security and adequate nutrition will require governments efforts at agricultural modernisation. Nwanze’s statement that Africa does not even need to tap into uncultivated land reserves to feed its people (Dougas, 2015) should be seen as an effort to keep Africa’s agriculture at subsistent level. In the event that Africans refuse to progress others will do it and carry the benefits to their countries (Alexander, 2015).

Much of Africa’s failures in agriculture result from poor land governance and ownership. Land reform has had mixed results on the African continent (Binswanger-Mkhize, 2014) but changes that clearly define property rights, ensure the security of land tenure, and enable land to be used as collateral will be necessary for potential productivity gains.

Table 6: Total arable land: past and projected (FAO, 2003).

Reality

In the good old days, when we were introduced to History as a subject, and which could also be studied at the University level, we were made to understand that it is the study of the events of the past, relating them to the present and using their outcomes to predict the future. If this is true, then, I am amazed at such frivolous accusations that the colonial masters were responsible for the socio-economic and political woes of developing economies.

Colonisation in Africa

There were two countries in Africa that were not colonised: Ethiopia and Liberia. The statuses of these two countries are not found to be remarkably better than the colonised countries. On the high GDP of 10.20% annual growth rate Priewe (2010) surmised “In 2000, Ethiopia was the poorest country on the globe in per capita GDP – a mere 124 US$ in current prices, as compared with current 910 US$. The main finding is that the take-off was driven by heterodox monetary and fiscal policy which targeted public expenditure for infrastructure. This triggered an increase in domestic demand, reinforced by strongly rising terms of trade under buoyant growth of the global economy until 2008. The combination of favourable factors induced strong productivity leaps mainly in agriculture and lifted millions of smallholder peasants, at least, partially out of subsistence economy toward participation in markets. Aggressive expansionary macroeconomic policies triggered bulging fixed investment, much beyond a narrow public expenditure boom.”

 Table 7: GDP and Literacy Statuses of African Countries

Table 7: GDP and Literacy Statuses of African Countries (cont’d)

Table 7: GDP and Literacy Statuses of African Countries (cont’d)

3Liberia’s growth rate stands at 2.50%, ranking it 42nd position out of 54 African countries.  Ethiopia ranks highest on literacy level at100% while Liberia ranks 40th with a mere 43%. On Human Development Index (HDI) Ethiopia ranks 41st at 0.406 while Liberia ranks 39th at 0.413 within the region; France, UK and USA respectively scored 0.952, 0.946 and 0.951. Liberia has a high rank, 6th among 50 countries ranked, in political stability at an index of 0.55 while Ethiopia falls to 44th with a score of -1.57.

Very important is infrastructure provisioning to assess a nation’s economic development programmes. Ethiopia ranks 34th among African countries by annual electricity production of 98 KWh while Liberia ranks at 38th at a production of 73KWh. In healthcare delivery, Ethiopia is ranked 44th position among African countries and 180th in world ranking while Liberia is rated 50th among African countries and 186th in world ranking. France and United Kingdom ranked 1st and 18th respectively in health and provide 8,336KWh and 12,866KWh of Electricity respectively per capital.

Note:

This article is presented with the view of raising concern for the development of the “developing countries”, not to condemn any government
but to create awareness and fashion out concrete paths towards development. While African nations will be the focus, examples will be drawn from other regions. It is hoped that peoples from other nations will contribute positively to the programme of fashioning out the path of development.

There is a Yoruba adage that says “Eepa npa ara ę o ni oun npa’ja, t’aja ba ku n’ibo ni eepa yio wa?” meaning “The dog worm is carrying out its extermination; believing that it is killing the dog, where will be its habitation at the demise of the dog?

This applies to African (and their likes) leaders who are busy carting away the resources of Africa into foreign lands to keep for their children. The Lord who created us said “So shall my word ‘If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep. (Ex 22:1,KJV)’ be that goeth forth out of my mouth: it shall not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it” (Isa 55:11, KJV). To those who assume that the grace has covered their iniquities “And Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the Lord; Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have taken any thing from any man by false accusation, I restore him fourfold” (Luke 19:8, KJV) to which Jesus replied “This day is salvation come to this house, forsomuch as he also is a son of Abraham. For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost” (Luke 19:9-10, KJV).

REFERENCES

Alexander, D (2015). The Biggest Opportunity In Agriculture May Be In Africa, And China Is Seizing It. Accessed 20 Sep 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/danalexander/2015/07/09/the-biggest-opportunity-in-agriculture-may-be-in-africa-and-china-is-seizing-it/#2f339d482a65

Binswanger-Mkhize, HP (2014).  From failure to success in South African land reform. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics Volume 9 Number 4 pages 253-269.

cia.gov  (2018). Unemployement rate compares the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Accessed 212 Sep 2018. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2129rank.html

Douglas, K (2015). Forget uncultivated land – Africa must produce more on existing farms. Accessed 20 Aug 2018. https://www.howwemadeitinafrica.com/forget-uncultivated-land-africa-must-produce-more-on-existing-farms/49524/

Fagoyinbo JB (2016). Understanding God-Ordained Destiny. Accessed 15 Sep 2018. http://gracefullyaged.com/2016/10/31/understanding-god-ordained-destiny/

Fagoyinbo, JB (2016a). Replenish the Earth (Gen 1:28). Accessed 15 Sep 2018. http://gracefullyaged.com/2016/10/31/replenish-the-earth-gen-128/

FAO (2003). Crop Production and Natural Resource Use. In World agriculture: Towards 2015/2030, An FAO perspective. Jelle Bruinsma (ed). Earthscan Publications Ltd London

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Wikipeda (2018). Gold Reserve. Accessed 15 Sep 2018 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold_reserve

Wikipedia (2018a). List of countries by iron ore production. Accessed 15 Sep 2018.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_iron_ore_production

Wikipedia (2018b). List of countries by copper production. Accessed 15 Sep 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_copper_production

Wikipedia (2018c). List of countries by mineral production. Accessed 15 Sep 2018.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_countries_by_mineral_production.

World Energy Council (2018). Energy Resources > Coal. World Energy Resources 2016. Accessed 15 Sep 2018. https://www.worldenergy.org/data/resources/resource/coal/

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