父債子還“ FATHER’S DEBT, SON TO GIVE BACK”

Good, Passive and Bad Citizen

History and Civics

Good, Passive and Bad Citizen
Good, Passive and Bad Citizen

In 1959, when that lofty subject called History was introduced to us in Primary V, we were made to believe that it was important so that the errors of previous generations could teach us lessons. Simultaneously we were introduced to Civics which classified man into three sub-species; the active, the passive and the bad (who we can view as the regressive).

In those days there were three types of secondary schools (SS); the Government-owned (GOS), the Missionary-owned (MOS) and the privately owned (POS). The POS were the reserve of those who could not gain admission to either GOS or MOS. There was a parallel secondary school which was tagged Secondary Modern School (SMS) for those whose parents could not afford to send their children to boarding schools (I fell into this category). Unlike the SS which lasted five years, the SMS lasted three years after which, on successful completion you, could either proceed to Teachers’ College in the South West, including Mid-West or enter into Nursing School. I learned that it was Auntie Victoria (Gowon) that changed the status of nurses and the entry qualification became the West African School Certificate (WASC). SS were far between. There were three types of SS, namely; Secondary Grammar School (Oshogbo Grammar School), College (Igbobi College) and High School (Christ High School). I don’t know the difference between them because they all took the Cambridge School Certificate (CSC) as their proficiency certificate. The CSC was later replaced with the WASC. Most of my contemporaries took the WASC.

I ended up at St Andrew’s College, Oyo, a Teachers’ College (Now Bishop Ajayi Crowther University). It was a Mission College. The discipline was such that you dared not walk on the lawns, pluck a mango fruit, even though they would be knocking your head when doing your morning duty, study on your bed during light out, be outside your bed during afternoon siesta, etc. All these were to teach us that we should not appropriate to ourselves what belongs to the public and that we should effectively manage our time. I learned that it was more demanding in the days of our seniors; the Obasanjo-TY Danjuma-Abdullahi Ango youth days. It is a misnomer that these same people are the ones looting the economy and laundering national currency.

父債子還

Father's Debt, Son to Give Back
Father and Son

There is a Chinese proverb that says 父債子還 in traditional Chinese or simplifies as 父 债子还. This is pronounced Fù zhài zǐ huán and is literally translated as “Father’s debt, son to give back”.

But our grandfathers and fathers (Herbert Macaulay, Obafemi Awolowo, Ahmadu Bello and Nnamdi Azikiwe) did not incur debt.

At least, Macaulay, Awolowo and Azikiwe did not pass unto us the spirit of debt. Osuntokun (2014), in a private research inspired by Prof Abdullahi Ango’s outbursts, deduced. “The totals of actual revenue and expenditure for 1936-37 of all the native treasuries together were GBP1453718 and GBP1477818 respectively (Northern provinces GBP913954 (revenue) and GBP985755 (expenditure); Southern provinces GBP539764 (revenue) and GBP492063 (expenditure). When you reconcile the revenue and expenditure profile of both group of provinces as highlighted in the consecutive figures corresponding to the North and South, the former spent more money than it earned while the traffic went the other way for the latter. The North had a deficit of GBP71905, while the South had a surplus of GBP47701.”

Grandfathers and Fathers’ Legacy

The issue now is that our grandfathers Macaulay and the likes, our fathers Awolowo, Azikiwe and Bello left lofty legacies of commitment to development and good governance but our uncles, our generation and those immediately following threw the morals impacted on us by the colonial administrators into the winds and revel in immorality, lasciviousness, greed, avarice, corruption, money laundering, etc.

Our Uncles, Our Generations (Male and Female) and Our Immediate Juniors (Ditto)

The first generation of military rulers, within their administrative period, impacted positively on the Nigerian nation. Good national policies were formulated, programs for national economic development and self-employment schemes were established and infrastructures were gradually being put in place. We would not go through History because we do not learn from it. Audu Bako left a number of earth dams which Kano and Jigawa States have not been able to completely harness for water supply, irrigation and agriculture; Ogbemudia sponsored education so much that even SMS outputs could travel abroad for studies, established a sports institute and invested in roads; Adebayo introduced bursary awards for indigent students, embarked on health programs while Ojukwu embarked on secession.

The Status that Nigeria Never Gained

Naswem (Undated) reiterated Titus Terver Mamadu’s view that Nigeria would have been the best country in Africa and one of the best in the world if not that corruption was institutionalized and most of the leaders never saw anything wrong in it. According to him, Gen. Ibrahim Babangida was the worst head of state Nigeria ever had because of so many atrocities and impunity he committed during his era of dictatorship. Naswem further stated that apart from the so many lives lost during Babangida’s administration, there was a great damage done on the economy whose effects have been felt till date. In 1986, the despot introduced the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP), as the Panacea for Nigeria’s economic problems. But it was clear, after only a few months, that Babangida’s administration lacked the strict financial discipline that economic revivalist programs like SAP entailed. Of him declared “In what could have been a historic transition from military to civilian rule in Nigeria, General Ibrahim  Babangida, who ruled the country for nearly a decade in the 1980s, organized the best-run presidential elections ever conducted in the nation’s history, only to prevent the 1994 scheduled installation of that election’s formally quantified winner, MKO Abiola, so as to impose General Sanni Abacha as the head of what turned out to be one of Nigeria’s most repressive, corrupt and sadistic military dictatorships” (Jakumo, 2010).

African Leaders Loot in Complicity with Expatriates
Looters International

Obasanjo destroyed the culture of maintenance and rehabilitation that the Petroleum (Special) Trust Fund was trying to establish and sold all assets belonging to Government. In his civilian administration, he destroyed all the accomplishments of his military era. He is acclaimed to have stolen the highest amount of money; despite his anti-corruption drive. Nigeria Newspaper (2016) claims that CNN reported him as stealing $25 billion from 1999-2007 ($16.4 from power sector alone). His colleagues (Nigeria Newspaper, 2016) in loot are:

  • Ibrahim Babangida –$15 billion from 1985-1993 ($12.4 billion from oil windfall in 1990);
  • Abdulsalam Abubakar –$9 billion from 1998-99;
  • Sani Abacha –$7 billion from 1993-1998;
  • Ahmed Bola Tinubu – estimated at $6 billion and continues to steal from Lagos State treasury since 1999 till date;
  • TY Danjuma – He fraudulently got enriched through oil blocks from the Niger Delta worth $20 million in the 70s after the counter-coup. Those oil blocks worth billions of dollars in today’s value;
  • Sanusi Lamido Sanusi –$1.2 billion as CBN Governor from 2008-2014.
  • Bukola Saraki – Through his father, Olusola Saraki, their bank, Societe Generale and as a governor of Kwara State (2003-20111) he stole $1.1 billion;
  • Nasir El Rufai – As FCT minister he seized landed properties that belonged to Nigerians and resold them with huge It’s estimated that he stole $1 billion from 2003-2007;
  • Tunde Fashola –poster boy of Tinubu. built his personal website for N78 million, drilled boreholes for over N100 million each and built a kilometer road for N1 billion. He stole $900 million from 2007-2015. He is now a minister to continue the looting;
  • Chibuike Rotimi Amaechi – From 2007 to 2015, he stole $700 million and $150 million which adequately aided him to effectively sponsor Buhari and APC;
  • Atiku Abubakar – claimed that “he was always at the right place at the right time.” Atiku is an astute businessman, but through shady deals, he stole $500 million from 1999-200;
  • James Ibori – He stole $150 million from 1999-2007 as governor of Delta State. He’s serving his term for money laundering in the UK;
  • Amina Mohammed – This woman was the founder of Afri-Project Consortium (APC) that was in charge of all PTF Projects during Abacha’s regime. About $125 million was stolen from PTF accounts from 1994-1998. Buhari has just nominated the same woman as a minister to continue to stealing;
  • DSP Alamieyeseigha – He stole $120 million and was arrested for money laundering. He pleaded guilty and long served his term;
  • Sule Lamido – He stole $110 million between 2007-2015 and from that amount, $50 million was found in his sons’ bank accounts. He was arrested and detained for days together with his sons;
  • Rabiu Kwankwaso – He stole $100 million as a governor of Kano State. EFCC has arrested many of his aides and they are “singing” how they siphoned the money.

Womenfolk

I remember also, that women used to be appointed or elected as treasurers at Community Development Associations, etc. because they were adjudged to be honest. Let’s check the list below if they can still be trusted:

  • Diezani Alison-Madueke: Her name has become the synonym with the embezzlement scandals and embezzling cosmic sum of $20 billion On Shady Oil Deal and stealing at least $25 million from Indian businessmen in a shady oil deal (Har, 2015);
  • Stella Oduah, the former Nigerian Minister of Aviation in the administration of Goodluck Jonathan, was involved in the corruption scandal of buying two bulletproof BMW cars at an allegedly inflated rate of N255 million. However, Justice Mohammed Yunusa restrained the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) from arresting the former minister of aviation on September 3 (Har, 2015);
  • Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala was accused of stealing $1 billion while serving as finance minister in Jonathan’s administration (Har, 2015);
  • Toyin Saraki, the wife of the Senate president and former governor of Kwara state, Bukola Saraki, was invited this summer by the EFCC to explain the strange inflow of funds into companies where she had interests when her husband was the governor of Kwara state. Reacting to the commission’s invitation, Toyin Saraki said she will honor the invitation (Har, 2015);
  • Marilyn Ogar, a former Department of State Security spokesperson, was also accused of collecting bribes shortly before the governorship elections in Osun state from the Petroleum Products Marketing (Har, 2015);
  • Zainab Dakingari, the daughter of former president Umaru Yar’ Adua and the wife of former Kebbi state ex-governor Saidu Dakingari, was accused by the EFCC of a fraud worth N2 billion perpetrated during her husband’s tenure as governor of the state (Har, 2015);
  • Iyabo Obasanjo-Bello, the daughter of Nigerian ex-president Olusegun Obasanjo, was embroiled in a money laundering scandal worth N300 million. In 2008, the EFCC charged her to court, but she urged the court to dismiss the charges on the grounds that the money allegedly given to her by the ministry of health had been spent for a bribe given to the members of the Senate Committee on Health (Har, 2015);
  • Patricia Olubunmi Etteh, the first female Speaker of the Nigerian House of representatives from June till October 2007 was involved in N628 Million Naira Money Laundering (Nigeria Newspaper, 2016);
  • Cecilia Ibru, Former managing director of Oceanic Bank International. Cecilia Ibru is said to be involved in one of the biggest female corruption scandals in the history of Nigeria. Multi-billion Money Laundering Scandal (Nigeria Newspaper, 2016); and
  • Ndidi Okereke-Onyiuke, Former Director-General of the Nigerian Stock Exchange. was accused of misappropriation of funds and carried out fraudulent transactions which includes the purchase of N186 million worth of wristwatches without proper accounts and a yacht for N39 million Under her leadership, there was the misappropriation of funds of over N1.5 billion which almost led to the crash of the Nigerian Stock Exchange market in 2009 (Nigeria Newspaper, 2016). It has also been established that her claim to have earned a Ph.D. in business from the City University of New York (CUNY) in 1983 and to have worked for years at the New York Stock Exchange (the world’s largest stock exchange) before returning to Nigeria in 1983 are fake (Kperogi, 2011).

The “Upcoming” Youth

It is very difficult to sympathize with today’s youth across Nigeria. If our grandfathers and fathers did not steal but put in place good legacy for us and our own illiterate parents sent us to good schools with good moral teaching yet we indulge in looting our treasuries, what will become of our children whose parents would not allow their being scolded or rebuked by their teachers because “we know the pain of childbirth”. I dared not let my parents know that I was flogged in school; that was earning another flogging from my father and nagging from my mother; my mother would top the nagging up with nail and biting when you were about to sleep yet crying and telling the story of why she did not go to school.

The pain of childbirth was worse in their time due to limited medical facilities, personnel and care; yet they were obedient to the Holy Bible instruction “He that spareth his rod hateth his son: but he that loveth him chasteneth him betimes” (Prov 13:24) and the Yoruba adage which says “Oju meji l’ o n bi’mǫ, Igba oju l’ o nwoo”

Now that we have destroyed the economy, the infrastructures, the governance, and worse still the youth, who would come in to rehabilitate them? The children:

  1. Whose teachers cannot correct and the parents are not available to train but put under the care of untutored house helps?
  2. For who we employ mercenaries to write their WAEC examinations through special centers?
  • Who we allocate funds to for gratifying the palms of their lecturers for appropriate grades and passes?
  1. Who rape our house helps and we severely punish the house helps for sleeping carelessly?
  2. Who get impregnated by our house boys and we take them out for abortion; after dismissing the houseboys?
  3. Who we send abroad to study only to come back as drug addicts, terrorists and hooligans?
  • Who don’t know how to write application letters but we seek juicy appointments for?

The price we’ll pay is that scarcely shall we close our eyes in that final sleep when they would start wars against one another; if we close our eyes before they start.

REFERENCES

Hart, B. (2015). 7 Women Embroiled In Huge Corruption Scandals In Nigeria. Accessed 14 Nov 2016.
https://www.naij.com/541086-7-prominent-female-nigerians-embroiled-in-corruption-scandals.html

Jakumo( (2010). The Evil Genius of Minna Mountain.  Accessed 14 Nov 2016 http://www.nairaland.com/428180/evil-genius-minna-mountain

Kperogi, F. A. (2011). Ndi Okereke-Onyiuke;s Fake Doctorate and Professorship. Accessed 14 Nov 2016 http://saharareporters.com/2011/06/25/ndi-okereke-onyiuke%E2%80%99s-fake-doctorate-and-professorship

Naswem, T (Undated). How Ibrahim Babangida Promoted Corruption And Stagnated Nigeria’s Economic Growth and Development. ABUSIDIQU. http://www.abusidiqu.com/how-ibrahim-babangida-promoted-corruption-and-stagnated-nigerias-economic-growth-and-devt-by-terfa-naswem./

Nigeria Newspaper(2016).  CNN Releases List Of 20 Most Corrupt Nigerian Politicians; Obasanjo Tops List, Others Will Shock You.  Nigeria Newspaper On June 03, 2016 Accessed 14 Nov 2016 http://www.nigerianewspaper.com.ng/2016/06/cnn-releases-list-of-20-most-corrupt.html

Nwaeze, A. (2016). Top 5 Notable Nigerian Women Whose Corruption Scandals Went Viral – Naija news. Accessed 14 Nov 2016 http://buzznigeria.com/top-5-notable-nigerian-women-whose-corruption-scandals-went-viral/

Osuntokun, A (2014). For Every Dangiwa Umar; There is Ango Abdulahi: DIALOGUE WITH NIGERIA 07 Feb 2014 Email: akin.osuntokun@thisdaylive.com.

Sahara Reporters (2007). Saharareporters discovers trails of OBJ/Uba loot. Jun 24, 2007. Accessed 20 Nov 2016. http://saharareporters.com/2007/06/24/saharareporters-discovers-trails-objuba-loot

APPLICATION OF “OJU BǪRǪ KǪ NI A FI NGB’ǪMǪ L’ǪWǪ EKURǪ” TO CHILD UPBRINGING

palm-kernel-extraction

By

JB Fagoyinbo

“Oju bǫrǫ kǫ ni a fi ngb’ǫmǫ l’ǫwǫ ekurǫ” The palm kernel cannot be extracted from its nut with ease.

In discussion, this usually flows well as “Oju bǫrǫ kǫ l’ a fi ngb’ǫmǫ l’ǫwǫ ekurǫ”. We need palm-kernel-extractionstrong determination to be able to extract the palm kernel from the nut. Generally the nut is very hard and requires great effort to crack it open in order to remove the kernel. How did the Yoruba develop this proverb? And why apply it to difficult situations?

The African oil palm Elaeis guineensis is indigenous to Africa and yields kernels that take a good proportion of its mass. Its kernel yields kernel oil which has a strong dark brown color with a strong taste, but it is rarely used outside West Africa. It is high in saturated fats, esterified with glycerol (Imoisi et al, 2015) and is more saturated than palm oil. It does not contain cholesterol or trans-fatty acids and it is rich in antioxidants. Many people have discovered that the active substance may have the ability to reverse blockage of the carotid artery and platelet aggregation thereby reducing the risk of life-threatening diseases. It is used to manage convulsion in children, can be used to reduce the effect of epilepsy attack, it can contain arteriosclerosis and other heart disease problems and helps in managing stroke and slowpoke tumor progression.

Characteristics of Yoruba Proverbs

Most Yoruba proverbs have been able to withstand the test of time because the proverbs developed from a deep understanding of the circumstances that generated them. Let’s take, for instance, the case of a recalcitrant child to test our proverb. Such a child is not born recalcitrant but had acquired such characteristic due to environmental circumstances which .may bother on parenthood or comperes.

Unbruised Collection of Palm Kernel
Unbruised Collection of Palm Kernel

Parents would like their children to grow up to be civilized, cultured, feel comfortable doing what they are supposed to do and follow the rules most of the time without questioning the rules; which would manifest in treating other children and adults with respect, speaking politely to other people, having self-confidence and high self-esteem and commitment to and persistence in hard work.

No parents want their children to grow up to be the sort of people who act like robots: doing all they are told unquestioningly. They want them to be logical in their thinking and actions; children should not be so intimidated by parents that they will not or cannot argue their cases.

In much the same way as the palm fruit is attractive to animals so is the protection offered by

Natures-Kernel-Protection-Measures
Natures-Kernel-Protection-Measures

nature to ensure that it matures. Generally, children start off with a desire to please their parents. But there are also negative forces demanding the attention of a child at any stage of growth; these manifest in undesirable behaviors.

Parents have to determine which of their children’s undesirable behaviors are really important enough to discourage and which other misbehaviors are trivial.

Parents want to protect their children and mold their behavior into what seems to them to be proper (Peters, 2012). In the same way, as unbruised kernels attract buyers at a good price, so parents wish their offspring to be unpolluted by the environment.

Parent-Child Conflict

There is one continuing dispute that defines the relationship between children of every age and their parents. In young children, conflict often develops when parents are indistinct about what they really want. These conflicts, then, do not come from a test of will, but from a failure of communication (Peters, 2012).

But, unlike the palm fruit, children always want to assert themselves in their own ways. They wish to be independent; to the extent their age and circumstances permit. To grow up successfully, they have to become independent of their parents; implying that they have to develop their own values and attitudes about religion, sexuality, profession,  politics and whatever else they think is integral to their personality. Intrinsic in those contrasting wishes is a conflict to a greater or lesser extent; depending on just what the wishes of the growing child are and on how insistent the parents are. Such conflict cannot be completely eliminated.

Nurturing

Two things we should know that nature carries out in respect of the kernel; nurturing and protection. As nature nurtures the kernel to maturity so does it offer protection. Every part of the plant takes part in the nurturing process. Irrespective of the height, protection is offered by

Thorny Midrib Protection
Thorny Midrib

the thorns on the leaf base, the spikes on the bunch, the acidic content of the unripe seed pulp and the thick shekel that is very hard. Notwithstanding, animals like squirrels, snakes, ants, birds, bats, etc. still have access to the nuts but few have access to the kernels. Overprotection can sometimes inhibit situations to proper development. In the case of the palm, nature has allowed such fertilizing agents as bees, butterflies, ants and other small animals to have access to its inflorescence.

Although young children seem to misbehave a lot, There is need to recognize that they are simply learning how to get their desires met. It is the parents’ responsibility to help them acquire positive values. Children who learn acceptable techniques grow up to become responsible adults who act from a strong moral conscience which revolves around predicting and evaluating the consequences of actions.

In the same vein, children are to be nurtured and protected. In Yoruba communities, nurturing goes beyond the provision of food, it includes character formation. It was the responsibility of the whole community; this gives rise to “Oju meji l’ o n bi’mǫ, Igba oju l’ o nwoo”.

Yoruba tradition stresses that the parents are the first teachers of their children, instructing them in the ‘proper way of relating to their elders and people of the same age group. In the communal atmosphere of the traditional family, parents of children who behave in approved ways are approved as successful; parents whose children misbehave are shamed and advised to put their houses in order.

When parents fortify their children, provision should be made for access by agents that will positively affect the children. Teachers are the qualified and certified agents that can effectively carry this out.

Recalcitrant Children

In the Yoruba traditional system, flogging is an acceptable way of correcting children when they are wrong. However, modern child-upbringing deemphasizes flogging; but generally to the detriment of moral values. Most parents are not sufficiently knowledgeable in the act of child-upbringing. In fact, most leave the children in the care of house-helps yet admonishing teachers, who are learned in psychology, when their wards are disciplined.

The traditional Yoruba adage states “Ile l’a ti n k’ękǫ r’ode” meaning that the origin of knowledge is the family.

I tend to agree with families in de-emphasizing flogging but not complete eradication. I taught in two primary schools over a period of three years and nine months and had occasion to apply the cane only thrice; two boys and one girl in the first instance in the first school and one girl in the second instance. In my second school five of my pupils did not come to school with materials for handcraft. The girl in the second instance was getting uncontrollable because she was the pet of her influential grandmother. The first of the boys was an apprentice Babalawo (Ifa priest).

He was part of a group that refused to carry out an instruction vital to their learning. I was not informed of his status because they never believed I would apply the cane; even if I was aware I might not have relented because I was unaware of that tradition; except if I had been informed much earlier. I was brought up in the city. Unfortunately for him, when I decided to apply the cane on them he boasted that nobody could flog him. While the others got light beatings on their palms he got two hot ones on his buttocks. I had nightmares but nothing untoward happened to me. He lost his apprenticeship because of it. I got aware only eleven years after; when one of his classmates told me the full story. Not because of the beating but for acting irresponsibly to earn a public flogging.

My Headmasters were wary of my rare-flogging method but discovered that my pupils responded more positively to learning and were better cultured that the other arm of the classes. I met my little girl twelve years after and she was appreciative of the fact that what I did made her grandmother to realize that she was being over-pampered; her aunt, who happened to be her mother’s elder sister, harped on it to make the grandmother stop the over-pampering influence on her.

Caution

Parents should refrain from accosting teachers when their wards are disciplined. It is a negation of God’s laws and counter-productive on the children. Teachers’ rebukes, reprimands and corrective measures are reinforcements against social and environmental hazards of life. Once these protective measures are removed, the child becomes vulnerable and cares less about authorities, rules and regulations. School administrative rules and regulations have put sufficient checks and balances in place for the protection of children.

References

Imoisi, O. B; G. E. Ilori; I. Agho; J. O. Ekhator (2015).  Palm oil, its nutritional and health implications (Review).  J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. March, 2015, Vol 19(1) 127-133

Peters, S. C. (2012). Helping a Recalcitrant Child. Accessed 07 Nov 2016. . http://www.phponline.org/1884/helping-a-recalcitrant-child/

 

The Beauty and Functionality of Proverbs

Meeting with Community Head
Meeting with Community Head
A Community Development Consultative Meeting

A proverb is a generalized statement popularly known and repeated and which expresses a truth based on common sense or experience. When it describes a basic rule of conduct it is known as a maxim. Proverbs transcend languages within similar climes, vegetation and cultural practices. As languages interact, proverbs are spread from one language to another; usually with slight adaptations. The English language, for example, is rich in proverbs because of its interaction through colonization with other languages.

A proverb is a short, generally known sentence of a language which contains a combination of wisdom, truth, morals, and traditional views in a metaphorical, fixed, and philosophical form and which has transcended many generations.

The Yoruba and the Igbo languages in Africa are rich in proverbs and their proverbs have very deep meanings. It is very easy, if you understand these languages, to identify which proverbs are original to them.

A Horse Eases Movement
A proverb is the horse with which we search for notions (Jean, 2010)

Let’s examine one Yoruba proverb that brings out its (proverb’s) function. “Owe l’ ęșin ǫrǫ. Ti ǫrǫ ba sǫnu, owe l’ a fi nwaa” A proverb is the horse with which we search for notions. Ęșin, horse, is an indigenous word, whereas horses cannot be said to be indigenous to Yoruba territories because of the presence of tsetse flies. However, the horse is likely to have come with the Yoruba when they immigrated to the South-western region of Nigeria and probably could not survive for that same reason.

Ǫrǫ can be literally translated as word but in this proverb, it goes beyond the literal translation; it is an idea or a presentation of wisdom that is based on the experience within the large community and which is found applicable to the situation at hand. It is an effective means of dissenting from a view or giving advice in a way that may be less offensive; because they are indirect.

Let’s look at this proverb “Ile l’ a ti nko ęșǫ r’ode” impacts on a child that it is the moral virtue impacted on a child in its background (family) that reflects its performance in the community. Lord John Russell’s (c. 1850) definition as “A proverb is the wit of one, and the wisdom of many” can be seen as its function; not its meaning. There is a complement to this proverb which says “Oju meji l’ o n bi’mǫ, Igba oju l’ o nwoo” which implies that the community has a role to play in the upbringing of the child.

Two People Give Birth, Community Trains
Two People Give Birth, Community Trains

Proverbs are used in conversation by adults more than children because adults have more experience in the use of words. Among the Yoruba, it is considered rude for a young person to use proverb without due reference to adults present, however, when an adult belittles himself the youth may apply proverb that will make him amend his uncomely deed. Proper application of proverbs is a skill that is developed over the years. Additionally, children have not mastered the patterns of metaphorical expression that are invoked in proverb use. Studying actual proverb use in conversation, however, is difficult since the researcher must wait for proverbs to happen.

THE EFFECT OF SURFACTANT HEAD GROUP MODIFICATION ON THE OXIDATION OF MALACHITE GREEN BY SULPHITE ION.

Laboratory Practice

BY

ADESIYAN, Funmilayo Aderonke

The oxidation of malachite green (a triphenylmethane dye) was studied in aqueous solutions of two cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTAB), hexadecylpyridinium bromide (HDPB) with the view of investigating the effects of surfactant head group modification on the kinetic parameters of the reaction.

The Laboratory Practicereaction was studied by measuring the decrease in absorbance of the dye as a function of time at the wavelength of maximum absorption (λmax), 617nm at 25°C using an Ultra-violet- Visible (UV-VIS) spectrophotometer. Kinetic parameters such as maximum rate constant in the micellar phase, km and the substrate (dye) binding constant, 1/KD, were obtained by fitting the pseudo-first order rate constant versus surfactant concentration curve to the Piszkiewicz model. The catalytic factors km/kw (the ratio of the maximum rate constant in micellar medium to that in the pure water) of 12 and 22 were obtained for HDTAB and HDPB respectively.

The pseudo-first order rate constant variation with surfactant concentration shows a sigmoid-shaped curve, which is analogous to the positive cooperativity in enzymatic reactions. It was observed that the maximum reaction rate constant, km and the binding constant, 1/KD were higher in the presence of HDPB than in HDTAB. These observations could be attributed to the difference in the head-group of the two surfactants.

The study concluded that the difference in surfactant head group played a significant role in the catalytic behaviour of the two surfactants used.

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LEADERSHIP AND LEGACY

leadership-and-legacy

by JB Fagoyinbo

Leadership and Legacy

Elders are expected to channel the knowledge and experiences gathered over the years for the development of their communities. Prof Ango has the opportunity to establish an organization that will henceforth promote and support gainful employment of the youth in rural development through profitable agriculture and agribusiness; thereby his hiccups would be forgotten.

Most importantly Prof Ango will do a lot of good to the country called Nigeria if he can set up an organization that assists Nigeria in making agriculture and rural life attractive to the youth. Then, he would have immortalized his name. Ford immortalized his name through his humanitarian efforts, Ahmadu Bello had a commitment to education, Islamisation by peaceful means, and fairness to all around him. Awolowo committed himself to education, community development, industrialization and healthcare delivery. You still have time to set up a foundation that will better the lives of the youth; it is not late. Onassis set up his own in honor of his late son after his own death.

Nobody says Nigeria should not break; but it is not to be sung by those who held positions that should have influenced the direction of activities when Nigeria used the blood of the indigenes of the Southwest, the Mid West and the Middle Belt to hold Nigeria together.

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Read more: Leadership and Legacy

THE SOURCE OF NIGERIA’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SECURITY DILEMMA REVEALED

Nigeria's nation builders

nation-builders

The Builders of the Nigeria Nation

By
JB FAGOYINBO

Okonkwo (2013) declared “there are elders and there are elders. Prof. Ango Abdullahi is not an elder. A real elder does not pursue a rat while his house is on fire”. This is a true saying but there is a need to exercise caution when addressing elders. Elders are human and can make errors particularly when they do not take the time to hear the views of the young ones before making comments: this, however, should not be used as an excuse to insult elders.

There is a need to recognize that while an accusing finger is directed to others, at least three others point to the owner; the fifth, specifically the thumb, informs you that there are others who have committed worse errors. Sentiments and religious prejudice cannot be completely removed from politics but should not be allowed to jeopardize the peace and solidarity of a nation. On the strength of population, the Hausa-Fulani ethnic group had made it clear that there is a ‘core North’ and the ordinary North. The ordinary North and other none-core North (non-Muslims, Southerners and non-Hausa-Fulani) are the ones being attacked by the Boko Haram sect, and the ones whose farms are being ravaged and citizen are being killed by the Fulani herdsmen. They are also the ones who are abandoned in times of pain as declared by Alhaji Bulama Mali Gubio but sought after in times of needs for votes (Olugbode, 2013).

Many of the Boko Haram boys are major of the Hausa-Fulani stock from Nigeria, Mali, Sudan and Niger Republic. However, there are millions of Hausa-Fulani men and women who are highly responsible and sympathetic towards the other ethnic and religious groups in this time of crisis.

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